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Cultural Heritage Policy Documents

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Cultural Heritage Policy Documents
The following list of charters, conventions, and recommendations represent the chronological development of cultural policy over the last 95 years. Documents in the list are international, regional and/or national in their scope. Though not a comprehensive list of all national cultural policies and legislation, these documents identify key issues and represent key policies in the development of contemporary thinking about the conservation of cultural property. Each document is abstracted, and on the abstract page there is a link to the full text document when available.

At the end of the list you will find a roster of the international organizations principally responsible for these documents and links, where available, to their organizational Web sites.
The initial research for this section was undertaken for the Getty Conservation Institute by Erica Steele.

The following list is organized chronologically:
1877-1904
1930-39
1950-59
1960-69
1970-78
1980-89
1990-99
2000-

1877-1904
The Principals of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings as Set Forth upon its Foundation (The SPAB Manifesto) (1877)
Recommendations of the Madrid Conference (1904)

1930-39
General Conclusions of the Athens Conference (1931)
Carta Di Atene (1931)
Charter of Athens (1933)
Roerich Pact: Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments (1935)

1950-59
Hague Convention: Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)
European Cultural Convention (1954)
Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeological Excavation (1956)
Recommendation Concerning International Competitions in Architecture and Town Planning (1956)

1960-69
Recommendation Concerning the Most Effective Means of Rendering Museums Accessible to Everyone (1960)
Recommendation Concerning the Safeguarding of the Beauty and Character of Landscapes and Sites (1962)
The Venice Charter: International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (1964)
Recommendation on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1964)
Norms of Quito: Final Report of the Meeting on the Preservation and Utilization of Monuments and Sites of Artistic and Historical Value (1967)
Recommendation concerning the Preservation of Cultural Property Endangered by Public or Private Works (1968)
European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (1969)

1970-78
Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970)
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972)
Recommendation Concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972)
Resolutions of the Symposium on the Introduction of Contemporary Architecture into Ancient Groups of Buildings (1972)
European Charter of the Architectural Heritage (1975)
Declaration of Amsterdam (1975)
Resolutions of the International Symposium on the Conservation of Smaller Historic Towns (1975)
Cultural Tourism (1976)
Convention on the Protection of the Archeological, Historical, and Artistic Heritage of the American Nations, Convention of San Salvador (1976)
Recommendation Concerning the Safeguarding and Contemporary Role of Historic Areas (1976)
Recommendation Concerning the International Exchange of Cultural Property (1976)
Recommendation for the Protection of Moveable Cultural Property (1978)

1980-89
Recommendation for the Safeguarding and Preservation of Moving Images (1980)
The Florence Charter: Historic Gardens (1982)
Deschambault Charter for the Preservation of Quebec's Heritage (1982)
Tlaxcala Declaration on the Revitalization of Small Settlements (1982)
Declaration of Dresden (1982)
Appleton Charter for the Protection and Enhancement of the Built Environment (1983)
Declaration of Rome (1983)
European Convention on Offences Relating to Cultural Property (1985)
Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe (1985)
First Brazilian Seminar About the Preservation and Revitalization of Historic Centers (1987)
The Washington Charter: Charter on the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (1987)
Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore (1989)
The Vermillion Accord on Archaeological Ethics and the Treatment of the Dead (1989)

1990-99
Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage (1990)
Québec City Declaration (1991)
Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Heritage Value (1992)
A Preservation Charter for the Historic Towns and Areas of the United States of America (1992)
Charter of Courmayeur (1992)
European Convention for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage of Europe (Revised) (1992)
New Orleans Charter for the Joint Preservation of Historic Structures and Artifacts (1992)
Declaration of Rio (1992)
Declaration of Oaxaca (1993)
The Fez Charter (1993)
Guidelines for Education and Training in the Conservation of Monuments, Ensembles and Sites (1993)
UN General Assembly Resolution (A/RES/48/15) on the Return or Restitution of Cultural Property to the Countries of Origin (1993)
Buenos Aires Draft Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (1994)
The Nara Document on Authenticity (1994)
Resolution on Information as an Instrument for Protection against War Damages to the Cultural Heritage (1994)
Unidroit Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995)
Bergen Protocol on Communications and Relations among Cities of the Organization of World Heritage Cities (1995)
Charter for Sustainable Tourism (1995)
Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties (1995)
Charter for the Protection and Management of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (1996)
Final Communiqué of the NATO-Partnership for Peace Conference on Cultural Heritage Protection in Wartime and in State of Emergency (1996)
Declaration of Valencia (1996)
Declaration of San Antonio (1996)
Declaration of Quebec (1997)
Document of Pavia (1997)
Evora Appeal (1997)
The Stockholm Declaration : Declaration of ICOMOS marking the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1998)
Declaration of Melbourne (1998)
Recommendation on Measures to Promote the Integrated Conservation of Historic Complexes Composed of Immovable and Moveable Property (1998)
The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (1999)
Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage (1999)
International Wood Committee Charter: Principles for the Preservation of Historic Timber Buildings (1999)
International Cultural Tourism Charter: Managing Tourism at Places of Heritage Significance (1999)
Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1999)

2000-
Convention on Biological Diversity (2000)
European Convention on Landscape (2000)
Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001)
Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)
Ename Charter (7nd Draft 2007)

References
For more information on international cultural policy and legislation, please consult the following.Phelan, Marilyn, Gary Edson and Kimberly P. Mayfield, eds. The Law of Cultural Property and Natural Heritage: Protection, Transfer, and Access (Evanston, Ill.: Kalos Kapp Press, 1998). This document contains reference to a limited number of national charters and conventions for the protection of cultural heritage.Burnham, Bonnie, ed. The Protection of Cultural Property, Handbook of National Legislations. (Paris: International Council of Museums, 1974).Saba, Hanná and Nabil G. Salamé, eds. The Protection of Movable Cultural Property, Compendium of Legislative Texts, Volumes I and II (Paris: UNESCO, 1984). Translation of Protection du patrimoine culturel mobilier. These resources contain information on the national legislation of other countries.

The Web sites of these organizations can provide background information. The starred entries also provide many full-text versions of the cultural heritage policy documents.
*Council of Europe ICOM (International Council of Museums)*ICOMOS (International Council on Sites and Monuments)ICAHM (International Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management (a committee of ICOMOS)IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions)OWHC (Organization of World Heritage Cities)*UNESCO (United National Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization) WMF (World Monuments Fund) See also the Tufts Multi-laterals Project.
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