Sunday, May 06, 2007

Charter for the Conservation of Unprotected Architectural Heritage and Sites in India 2004

Drawing upon the experience of the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage
(INTACH) in conserving the unprotected architectural heritage and sites of India within an
institutional framework for two decades;

Respecting the invaluable contributions of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and State
Departments of Archaeology (SDA) in preserving the finest monuments of India;

Valuing ASI's pioneering role in promoting scientific methods of practice and establishing
highest standards of professionalism in preserving monuments;

Acknowledging the importance and relevance of principles enunciated in the various
international Charters adopted by UNESCO, ICOMOS, et al;

Conscious, however, that a majority of architectural heritage properties and sites in India still
remains unidentified, unclassified, and unprotected, thereby subject to attrition on account of
neglect, vandalism and insensitive development;

Recognising the unique resource of the ‘living’ heritage of Master Builders / Sthapatis /
Sompuras / Raj Mistris who continue to build and care for buildings following traditions of their

Recognising, too, the concept of jeernodharanam, the symbiotic relationship binding the
tangible and intangible architectural heritage of India as one of the traditional philosophies
underpinning conservation practice;

Noting the growing role of a trained cadre of conservation architects in India who are re-defining
the meaning and boundaries of contemporary conservation practices;

Convinced that it is necessary to value and conserve the unprotected architectural heritage and
sites in India by formulating appropriate guidelines sympathetic to the contexts in which they are

We, members of INTACH, gathered here in New Delhi on the 4th day of November 2004, adopt
the following Charter for Conservation of Unprotected Architectural Heritage and Sites in

ARTICLE 1: Why Conserve? ARTICLE 2: What to Conserve? ARTICLE 3: Conservation
ARTICLE 1: Why Conserve?
1.1 The majority of India’s architectural heritage and sites are unprotected. They constitute a
unique civilization legacy, as valuable as the monuments legally protected by ASI/ SDA and
other governmental and non-governmental agencies. This legacy is being steadily eroded as a
result of insensitive modernization and urbanization, and the fact that it does not command the
same respect as legally protected monuments. Many unprotected heritage sites are still in use,
and the manner in which they continue to be kept in use represents the ‘living’ heritage of India.
This heritage is manifest in both tangible and intangible forms (Article 2.2), and in its diversity
defines the composite culture of the country. Beyond its role as a historic document, this
unprotected heritage embodies values of enduring relevance to contemporary Indian society, thus
making it worthy of conservation.
1.2 This ‘living’ heritage is not legally protected. The buildings and sites, which constitute it, are
subject to demolition or unsympathetic interventions. The knowledge of traditional building
skills with which it is associated is also in danger of being lost in the absence of patronage and
official recognition. Conserving the ‘living’ heritage, therefore, offers the potential to conserve
both traditional buildings and traditional ways of building.
1.3 Conserving the unprotected architectural heritage and sites ensures the survival of the
country’s sense of place and its very character in a globalising environment. It offers the
opportunity not only to conserve the past, but also to define the future. It provides alternate
avenues for employment and a parallel market for local building materials and technologies,
which needs to be taken into account when resources for development are severely constrained.
1.4 This ‘living’ heritage also has symbiotic relationships with the natural environments within
which it originally evolved. Understanding this interdependent ecological network and
conserving it can make a significant contribution to improving the quality of the environment.
ARTICLE 2: What to Conserve?
2.1 The objective of conservation is to maintain the significance of the architectural heritage or
site. Significance is constituted in both the tangible and intangible forms. The process of Listing
(Article 5) must determine the characteristics of significance and prioritise them.
2.2 The tangible heritage includes historic buildings of all periods, their setting in the historic
precincts of cities and their relationship to the natural environment. It also includes culturally
significant modern buildings and towns. The intangible heritage includes the extant culture of
traditional building skills and knowledge, rites and rituals, social life and lifestyles of the
inhabitants, which together with the tangible heritage constitutes the ‘living’ heritage. Both
tangible and intangible heritage, and especially the link between them, should be conserved.
2.3 Conservation of architectural heritage and sites must retain meaning for the society in which
it exists. This meaning may change over time, but taking it into consideration ensures that
conservation will, at all times, have a contemporary logic underpinning its practice. This
necessitates viewing conservation as a multi-disciplinary activity.
2.4 Where the evidence of the tangible or intangible architectural heritage exists in fragments, it
is necessary to conserve it, even in part, as representative of a historic past. Such conservation
must ideally be undertaken in-situ, but if this is not possible, then it should be relocated to a
place where it would be safe for continued contemplation.
2.5 Conservation in India is heir not only to Western conservation theories and principles
introduced through colonialism and, later, by the adoption of guidelines formulated by
UNESCO, ICOMOS and international funding agencies, but also to pre-existing, indigenous
knowledge systems and skills of building. These indigenous practices vary regionally and cannot
be considered as a single system operating all over India. This necessitates viewing conservation
practices as a multi-cultural activity.
2.6 While the Western ideology of conservation advocates minimal intervention, India’s
indigenous traditions idealise the opposite. Western ideology underpins official and legal
conservation practice in India and is appropriate for conserving protected monuments. However,
conserving unprotected architectural heritage offers the opportunity to use indigenous practices.
This does not imply a hierarchy of either practice or site, but provides a rationale for encouraging
indigenous practices and thus keeping them alive. Before undertaking conservation, therefore, it
is necessary to identify where one system should be applied and where the other. For this
purpose, it is necessary at the outset to make a comprehensive inventory (see Article 5) of extant
heritage, both tangible and intangible, and separate it into two categories:
A.i Buildings and sites protected by ASI, SDA and other government or non-government
agencies. Only the official and legal instruments of conservation and internationally accepted
principles should be adopted here;
A.ii Other listed buildings and sites which, though not protected by ASI, SDA and other
government or non-government agencies, possessing heritage value or significance equivalent
to that of protected monuments. Here too, the official and legal instruments should be adopted
for their conservation;
B. The remaining listed buildings and sites both modern and historic, including those produced
within the last hundred years. Here, the conservation strategy may adopt either the official and
legal instruments of conservation or those rooted in indigenous building traditions. Hybrid
strategies, inventively combining indigenous and official practices, can also be employed to
conserve this heritage category. The decision to adopt indigenous practices should be based on
the availability of skilled and knowledgeable raj mistris. In all cases a rationale for the
decision taken to adopt one or another system of conservation must be recorded.
2.7 The overarching objective for undertaking conservation of unprotected architectural heritage
and sites is to establish the efficacy of conservation as a development goal. What to conserve
will, therefore, be determined by those strategies of conservation, which accommodate the
imperatives of development and the welfare of the community while seeking economically to
achieve maximum protection of the significant values of the architectural heritage and site.
ARTICLE 3: Conservation Ethics
3.1 Authenticity
3.1.1 The traditional knowledge systems and the cultural landscape in which it exists,
particularly if these are ‘living’, should define the authenticity of the heritage value to be
conserved. In the absence of such contexts, the official and legal guidelines, particularly as
defined by the “Nara Document on Authenticity, 1994”, should determine the nature of the
authenticity of the architectural heritage and site.
3.1.2 Traditional knowledge systems and cultural landscapes vary from one regional/cultural
context to another or within the same region/culture. Thus, the values of ‘living’ architectural
heritage can differ from one context to another, reflecting the cultural diversity of the country. In
each case, however, conservation should faithfully reflect the significant values, which define the
3.2 Conjecture
3.2.1 Local master builders build, rebuild, restore, renew and make additions/alterations to
historic buildings in response to contemporary exigencies or evolving local needs of the
community; they must be encouraged to follow their traditions even when there is no available
evidence in the form of documentation, oral histories or physical remains of previous structures.
Appropriate craftspeople for undertaking such works should be identified as described in Article
3.2.2 An exact replacement, restoration or rebuilding must be valued when it ensures continuity
of traditional building practices.
3.2.3 Conjectural restoration or rebuilding must nevertheless respect the overall spatial and
volumetric composition of historic settings. The parameters of the historical setting should be
defined through comprehensive urban design studies. These parameters should also guide new
urban development in the vicinity of heritage buildings and sites.
3.2.4 The ASI / SDA rule prohibiting development within a 100-metre radius of a protected
building restricts the practice of restoration or rebuilding of sites, conjectural or otherwise, and
thereby may result in harming the welfare of society. This rule should not be applied to conserve
unprotected architectural heritages and sites.
3.3 Integrity
3.3.1 The integrity of the heritage is to be defined and interpreted not only in terms of the
physical fabric of the building, but also with respect to the collective knowledge systems and
cultural landscape it represents. This knowledge system, where it exists, must mediate the
process of conservation/ restoration/ rebuilding of the unprotected architectural heritage in order
to reinforce an appreciation of the cultural landscape. This dynamic concept understands the
integrity of the individual building as one which evolves in response to contemporary needs of
local society.
3.3.2 The concept of an evolving integrity accepts the introduction of new architectonic
elements, materials and technologies when local traditions are insufficient or unavailable. The
introduction of new elements may reflect contemporary aesthetic ideals as modern additions to
old buildings.
3.4 Patina
3.4.1 The patination of historic fabric due to age or natural decay should not compel the
preservation of a ruin as it exists, frozen in time and space. In conformity with local aesthetic
traditions, and for the well being of the heritage building or site, renewal, restoration, repair or
rebuilding is acceptable. Patina may, where necessary, be considered as a sacrificial layer.
3.5 Rights of the indigenous community
3.5.1 Each community has its own distinctive culture constituted by its traditions, beliefs, rituals
and practices - all intrinsic to defining the significance of the unprotected architectural heritage
and site. The conservation strategy must respect the fact that local cultures are not static and,
therefore, encourage active community involvement in the process of decision-making. This will
ensure that the symbiotic relation between the indigenous community and its own heritage is
strengthened through conservation.
3.6 Respect for the contributions of all periods
3.6.1 The contributions of earlier periods which produced the historic fabric and consequent
interventions, including contemporary interventions, based on either traditional systems of
building knowledge or modern practices, must be respected as constituting the integrity of the
heritage sought to be conserved. The objective of conserving the unprotected architectural
heritage and site is not so much to reveal the authentic quality of the past or preserve its original
integrity, but rather to mediate its evolving cultural significance to achieve beneficial results.
3.6.2 The holistic coherence of the heritage in terms of its urban design, architectural
composition and the meaning it holds for the local community should determine any intervention
in the process of conservation.
3.7 Inseparable bond with setting
3.7.1 An unprotected heritage building or site is inseparable from its physical and cultural
context, and belongs to the local society as long as its members continue to value and nurture it.
The conservation process must be sensitive to this relationship, and reinforce it.
3.7.2 If the unprotected heritage does not possess any bond with contemporary society, then its
relevance for conservation may be questioned and modern re-development may be considered an
option to meet the welfare needs of society. This decision must invariably be taken in
consultation with INTACH’s Advisory Committees as described in Article 7.2.5.
3.8 Minimal intervention
3.8.1 Conservation may include additions and alterations of the physical fabric, in part or whole,
in order to reinstate the meaning and coherence of the unprotected architectural heritage and site.
In the first instance, however, conservation should attempt minimal intervention.
3.8.2 However, substantial additions and alterations may be acceptable provided the significance
of the heritage is retained or enhanced.
3.9 Minimal loss of fabric
3.9.1 The nature and degree of intervention for repairing, restoring, rebuilding, reuse or
introducing new use, should be determined on the basis of the intervention’s contribution to the
continuity of cultural practices, including traditional building skills and knowledge, and the
extent to which the changes envisaged meet the needs of the community.
3.10 Reversibility
3.10.1 The principle of reversibility of interventions needs not dictate conservation strategy. In
order to use the unprotected heritage for the socio-economic regeneration of the local
communities, the historic building and site can be suitably adapted and modified for an
appropriate reuse. For this it is only essential that the process of intervention contributes to
conserving the traditional context as far as possible in the modified form. This decision must
invariably be taken in consultation with INTACH’s Advisory Committees as described in Article
3.11 Legibility
3.11.1 The legibility of any intervention must be viewed in its own context. If traditional
craftspeople are employed then it must be accepted that their pride derives from the fact that the
new work is in complete harmony with the old and is not distinguishable from it. Thus, historic
ways of building must be valued more than the imperative to put a contemporary stamp on any
intervention in a historic building.
3.11.2 Where modern material or technology is used, it could be used to replicate the old or be
distinguished from it, depending on the artistic intent governing the strategy of conservation.
3.12 Demolish/ Rebuild
3.12.1 The concept of jeernodharanam, or regeneration of what decays, must guide the nature of
conservation. This belief is fundamental to conserving traditional ways of building and
maintaining the continuity of local knowledge systems.
3.12.2 If, however, local conditions are such that all strategies to conserve the unprotected
architectural heritage and site are found to be inadequate, then the option of replacing it should
be examined. This process is also rooted in tradition because it recognises ‘cyclical’ perceptions
of time, whereby buildings live, die and are rebuilt. This option must be discussed, debated and
decided in consultation with all concerned stakeholders, including INTACH’s Advisory
Committee as described in Article 7.2.5.
3.12.3 Where the existence of a cultural resource is under severe threat by natural calamities or
man-made hazards, the building may be dismantled and reassembled at another appropriate site
after undertaking thorough documentation of its extant condition.
3.12.4 If a historic structure has outlived its significance and its meanings to local people are
lost, it may be preserved as a ruin or, if circumstances do not permit that, left undisturbed to meet
its natural end.
3.12.5 If removal in whole or part from the original site or context is the only means of ensuring
the security and preservation of a building, then a comprehensive documentation of all valuable
and significant components of the cultural resource must be undertaken before it is dismantled.
3.13 Relationship between the conservation architect and the community
3.13.1 In dealing with the conservation of unprotected architectural heritage and sites, it may
become necessary to temper the role of the conservation architect as an expert professional by
taking into account the desires and aspirations of the local community and the traditional
practices of raj mistris. This does not assume, a priori, that the interests of conservation
architects and those of the community and traditional master builders are incompatible, but rather
that there must be room in the process of conservation for dialogue and negotiated decision
In order to achieve a more satisfying result for the community it may be necessary to override
the professional imperative to adhere to the principles governing the conservation of legally
protected monuments. This is acceptable when dealing with unprotected architectural heritage
and sites provided, as stated in Article 2.7, that conservation strategies seek economically to
achieve maximum protection of the significant values of the architectural heritage and site.

ARTICLE 4: Conservation Objectives ARTICLE 5: Listing ARTICLE 6: Guidelines for
ARTICLE 4: Conservation Objectives
4.1 Retain visual identity
4.1.1 In a globalising world, where visual spaces are rapidly becoming homogenised, it is
necessary to retain the specific visual identity of a place created by the presence of unprotected
architectural heritage and sites. Yet, this image should not be preserved in the manner of legally
protected monuments, but must accommodate the imperatives of change in making the heritage
relevant in contemporary society. The objective must be to integrate unprotected heritage and
sites into daily social life by balancing their needs so that neither overshadows the other.
4.1.2 The visual cacophony created by advertisement boards, signage, hanging electric cables, air
conditioning units, dish antennas, etc. must be carefully controlled to enhance the visual
character of the architectural heritage and site. Additions of street furniture, pavement material,
lighting, signage, etc. can add to the experience and appreciation of the heritage.
4.1.3 In this respect the objectives of conservation can mediate even new buildings or
neighbourhoods by requiring them to make reference to the old by employing elements, methods
and devices characterising the architectural heritage of the area so that the new is linked with the
4.2 Adaptive re-use
4.2.1 The re-use of historic buildings and neighbourhoods is economically sensible. It is an
effective strategy to conserve architectural heritage, particularly by using traditional craftspeople
in the process. Such re-use distinguishes between preservation as an ideal on the one hand and,
on the other, the goal to prolong the useful life of architectural heritage by retaining as much
(and not necessarily, all) of the surviving evidence as a vestigial presence.
4.2.2 Priority must be accorded to retaining the continuity of original functions. Any new use
must be introduced only after studying its effect on the local context, and must conform to the
carrying capacity and vulnerability of the architectural heritage.
4.2.3 All changes to the original fabric should be preceded and followed by comprehensive
documentation. Additions and alterations must respect the coherence of the whole, and must, to
the extent possible, engage traditional materials, skills and knowledge in the process.
4.2.4 When it becomes necessary to modernise and comprehensively alter the original internal
functional characteristics of the building or site, its external image must be retained.
4.2.5 At the outset, the local community must be made aware of the changes envisaged and
explained the benefits to be derived.
4.3 Restoration/ Replication/ Rebuilding
4.3.1 Restoration is an appropriate conservation strategy to reinstate the integrity or complete the
fractured ‘whole’ of the architectural heritage/ site. It must aim to convey the meaning of the
heritage in the most effective manner. It may include reassembling of displaced and
dismembered components of the structure and conjectural building or replacement of missing or
severely deteriorated parts of the fabric. Invariably, restoration work must be preceded and
followed by comprehensive documentation in order to base interventions on informed
understanding of the resource and its context, and in conformity with contemporary practices of
local craftspeople.
4.3.2 In consonance with traditional ideals, replication can be accepted as an appropriate strategy
not only to conserve unprotected historic buildings, but especially if such replication encourages
historic ways of building.
4.3.3 At the urban level, the objective of rebuilding historic structures should be to enhance the
visual and experiential quality of the built environment, thereby providing a local distinctiveness
to contest the homogenising influence of globalisation.
4.3.4 In addition, reconstruction/ rebuilding can provide the impetus to develop a parallel market
for local buildings materials and new opportunities for the use of alternative systems of building.
4.3.5 Reconstruction based on minimal physical evidence is appropriate where it is supported by
the knowledge of local craftspeople, including folklore, beliefs, myths and legends, rituals,
customs, oral traditions, etc. The objective of this practice must be to interpret the original
meanings of the resource in the contemporary context and reinforce its bond with society.
4.4 Employment generation
4.4.1 Conservation strategy must focus on the potential for employing local raj mistris, labour
and materials because this will prolong the economic viability of traditional ways of building. In
conditions of resource scarcity, the use of architectural heritage can provide an alternate and
more economic strategy to meet contemporary needs as well.
4.5 Local material and traditional technology
4.5.1 The use of local materials and traditional technologies must invariably be preferred. Their
choice must be based on the availability of traditional knowledge systems. Modern substitutes
should be considered only after their use is proven efficient and judicious, and must not
compromise the integrity and continuity of local building traditions.
4.5.2 It is necessary to recognise that the use of certain traditional building materials may be
inadvisable on account of the damage this can cause to the natural ecological systems. Thus the
use of shell lime in coastal areas and wood generally may need to be judicially substituted with
alternate materials.
4.6 Integrated conservation
4.6.1 Conservation of architectural heritage and sites must be integrated with the social and
economic aspirations of society. Conservation-oriented development must be the preferred
strategy for social and economic progress. This necessitates the formation of multi-disciplinary
teams to undertake integrated conservation projects. Since social aspirations are diverse and
often at odds with each other, the conservation team must include social workers to facilitate
dialogue and decision-making.
4.7 Sustainability
3.1 4.7.1 The objective of conservation should be to sustain the building and/or the traditional
skill and knowledge system of building. In this context, continuity must be seen as evolving over
time. The test of its validity must be the positive contribution it makes to the quality of life of the
local community.
ARTICLE 5: Listing
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Through the ASI, the Central Government protects monuments more than 100 years old
declared to be of national importance. Monuments of importance to States are protected by the
respective SDAs. However, the existing legislation covers only about 5,000 monuments at the
national level and approximately 3,500 at the state level. Considering India’s vast cultural
heritage, these numbers are inadequate and their focus monument-centric.
5.1.2 INTACH has undertaken an inventory of built heritage in India which includes notable
buildings aged 50 years or more which are deemed to be of architectural, historical,
archaeological or aesthetic importance.
5.1.3 This inventory will become INTACH’s National Register of Historic Properties. It attempts
to create a systematic, accessible and retrievable inventory of the built heritage of this country. It
will serve as resource material for developing heritage conservation policies and regulations. In
due course, this database should be made more comprehensive and the information compiled
should be available online. It should also be made compatible with similar registers of other
countries to facilitate international research.
5.1.4 A similar Register of Craftspeople associated with the architectural heritage must be
undertaken by specialist cultural organizations (Article 8.6.3). It is important to reiterate that
both buildings being listed and associated activities that keep these building in use constitute the
‘living’ heritage. The Register of Craftspeople is, therefore, essential to viewing the architectural
heritage in a holistic manner.
5.2 Inventory of properties / buildings
5.2.1 Since a large part of India’s cultural heritage has so far remained undocumented, preparing
an inventory of heritage buildings worthy of preservation is the most important task with which
to begin the process of conservation.
5.2.2 The primary aim of listing is to document the fast disappearing built heritage and then
present it to scholars and the general public in a user-friendly format, which aids conservation by
generating public awareness. Once a property/ building is included in such a list, it becomes
justifiable to undertake necessary conservation activities by formulating special regulations for
its conservation or according it due protection under Town Planning Acts. Ideally, the footprints
of all listed buildings should be included in the Master Plan documents of cities.
5.2.3 Buildings protected by the ASI and SDA should also be included in the list prepared by
5.3 Selection criteria
5.3.1 Although interrelated, the following three key attributes will determine whether a property
is worthy of listing:
i. Historic significance
ii. Historic integrity
iii. Historic context
One or more of these attributes need to be present in a building to make it worthy of listing.
5.4 Historic significance
5.4.1 Historic significance refers to the importance of a property to the history, architecture,
archaeology, engineering or culture of a community, region or nation. In selecting a building,
particular attention should be paid to the following:
i. Association with events, activities or patterns.
ii. Association with important persons, including ordinary people who have made
significant contribution to India’s living heritage.
iii. Distinctive physical characteristics of design, construction or form, representing
the work of a master craftsperson.
iv. Potential to yield important information, such as socio-economic history. Railway
stations, town halls, clubs, markets, water works etc. are examples of such sites
v. Technological innovation represented. For example: dams, bridges, etc.
vi. Town planning features such as squares, streets, avenues, etc. For example:
Rajpath in New Delhi.
5.5 Historic integrity
5.5.1 Historic integrity refers to the property’s historic identity, evidenced by the survival of
physical characteristics and significant elements that existed during the property’s historic
period. The “original” identity includes changes and additions over historic time.
5.5.2 Historic integrity enables a property to illustrate significant aspects of its past. Not only
must a property resemble its historic appearance, but it must also retain original materials, design
features and aspects of construction dating from the period when it attained significance.
5.5.3 Historic integrity also relates to intangible values such as the building or site’s cultural
associations and traditions.
5.6 Historic context
5.6.1 Historic context refers to information about historic trends and properties grouped by an
important theme in the history of a community, region or nation during a particular period of
5.6.2 Knowledge of historic context enables the public to understand a historic property as a
product of its time.
5.7 Precincts or properties with multiple owners
5.7.1 A historic building complex may comprise of numerous ancillary structures besides the
main structure. Each structure of the complex must be documented on individual proformas. For
example, Jahangir Mahal, Diwan-i-Aam, Diwan-i-Khas and Moti Masjid all form part of the
Agra Fort complex but are also individual buildings in their own right and, as such, must be
documented individually.
5.8 Methodology
5.8.1 The determination of significance is the key component of methodology. All conservation
decisions follow from the level of significance that is assigned to a building or site.
5.8.2 Listing work is comprised of two phases:
i. Background research
ii. Field work
5.9 Background research
5.9.1 Before commencing actual fieldwork, the lister should gather basic information from
various sources including gazetteers, travel books and other specialised books containing
information about the architecture and history of the area to be listed and documented. This work
could be done in university libraries, the ASI, the National Museum, the Central Secretariat, the
respective State Secretariats, Institutes of Advanced Studies and Schools of Planning and
Architecture. In a given area, local experts and university scholars are resource persons who
could also provide required guidance and help.
5.9.2 Background research helps to ensure that no important structure or representative style of
building is left out of the list. It enables the identification of historic areas, historic development
of the area, significant events in the area and important persons associated with the area. In some
well-documented areas, distinctive physical characteristics of design, construction or form of
building resource can also be identified.
5.10 Field work
5.10.1 First and foremost it is necessary to carry out a field survey to identify the buildings and
the areas to be listed. Following this, a detailed physical inspection of the property and dialogues
with appropriate local people such as the owners of the property, area residents, local
panchayats, etc. need to be undertaken. By physically inspecting the property the lister can
gather information regarding the physical fabric of the building, such as physical characteristics,
period of construction, etc. that need to be cross-checked with the literature survey. By
conducting a dialogue with area residents, the lister can determine the changes to the property
over time, ownership details, historic function and activities, association with events and persons
and the role of the property in local, regional or national history.
5.10.2 When gathering information, the lister must be mindful of proforma requirements (Article
5.12). The proforma is, first of all, a record of the property at the time of listing and consists of
current name; historic or other name(s), location, approach and accessibility, current ownership,
historic usage, and present use.
5.10.3 Claims of historic significance and integrity should be supported with descriptions of
special features, state of preservation, relevant dates, etc.
5.11 Mapping of vernacular architecture and historic settlements
5.11.1 The major shortcoming of the current list of legally protected architectural heritage is that
it does not recognise vernacular architecture and historic settlements as categories of heritage
worthy of being conserved. The listing of unprotected architectural heritage and sites must,
therefore, include this category. An example of such an inclusive document is INTACH’s
“Listing of Built Heritage of Delhi” published in 1999.
5.11.2 Sacred sites must be dealt with due sensitivity and knowledge of the local social and
cultural imperatives governing their sanctity. Listing must record such characteristics associated
with these sites.
5.12 Detailed format for all the structures
5.12.1 Information for each building or site should be recorded as per INTACH’s standard
format as described below.
5.12.2 Each proforma must contain information about listers and reviewers. Listing must be
carried out by or under the supervision of experienced conservation architects.
5.12.3 At least one photograph of the property/ building should be recorded for identification
purposes. All significant elements of the property also need to be photographed. All photographs
should be properly catalogued.
5.12.4 A conceptual plan (if available, a measured drawing) should be given for each building/
area listed.
5.12.5 Any additional information related to or affecting the built heritage of the
city/town/region documented and its conservation should be included as appendices, for
example: laws and regulations on planning and conservation, etc.
5.12.6 A glossary should be provided explaining the technical and the special words used must
be provided. For example: “Imambara - a shrine/ religious structure of Shia Muslims”.
5.12.7 A bibliography of all books, publications, articles and unpublished work must be
provided. The uniform format should be followed throughout.
5.13 Grading
5.13.1 The primary objective of listing is to record extant architectural heritage and sites. But the
outcome of this process should invariably be to grade the listed heritage into a hierarchical series.
This process must be undertaken in a rigorous and transparent manner by a multi-disciplinary
team of experts whose recommendations should be available for public scrutiny. The importance
of this process cannot be underestimated because its results determine subsequent conservation
decisions. Such hierarchical categorisation facilitates the prioritisation of decisions relating to the
future of architectural heritage and sites.
5.13.2 This Charter recommends that buildings and sites be classified as Grade I*, I, II and III in
descending order of importance.
5.13.3 Buildings and sites classified as Grade I*, I and II should be conserved in accordance with
the provisions of official and legal manuals of practice (for example, ASI’s Works Manual).
Some Grade II buildings, however, and all other listed buildings and sites, i.e. Grade III, may be
conserved in accordance with principles enunciated in this Charter (Article 2.6). The decision to
apply the principles enunciated in this Charter to Grade II buildings must invariably be based on
the concurrence of the Advisory Committees of INTACH (Article 7.2.5).
5.13.4 The process of listing should be constantly upgraded and the list updated in keeping with
the availability of fresh information, financial and material resources, advances in technology
and developments in the understanding of architectural heritage and its constituents.
ARTICLE 6: Guidelines for Conservation
6.1 Guidelines for Conservation
6.1.1 For the present, the latest edition of INTACH’s “Guidelines for Conservation” should be
followed, unless otherwise indicated by the imperatives of this Charter. These Guidelines should
be updated by conservation architects periodically. It may also be necessary to bring out regionspecific
guidelines so that conservation practices can be sensitive to regional material and
cultural attributes.
6.2 Heritage zone
6.2.1 Conservation of architectural heritage sites can be undertaken in terms of the Heritage Zone
concept propagated by INTACH. In general, Heritage Zones are sensitive development areas,
which are a part of larger urban agglomeration possessing significant evidence of heritage. The
Heritage Zone concept requires that the conservation of unprotected architectural heritage and
sites must be sensitively planned, but also aligned with the imperatives of routine development
6.2.2 Urban conservation plans must be incorporated into the statutory Master Plan of cities. This
necessitates undertaking a process of dialogue and negotiation with government town planning
departments as part of the conservation strategy. Regulations to control or mediate development
within the Heritage Zone, including new construction, demolition or modification to existing
buildings around historic structures or within historic precincts can be formulated and
incorporated within the “Special Area” provision of the respective Town Planning Acts of
different States.
6.3 Role of conservation architects
6.3.1 The role of the conservation architect is to provide expert advice for conserving the
architectural heritage and site. Conservation, however, is a multi-disciplinary activity and
conservation architects must work closely with professionals of other disciplines in order to
address its diverse objectives. Depending on circumstances, the conservation architect may either
lead the project team or simply participate as a team member with specific expertise. In any
event, the role of conservation architects must be clearly defined, either by conservation
architects themselves or by the initiator of the project.
6.3.2 Conservation architects also have an important advocacy role to play in promoting the
conservation of unprotected architectural heritage and sites. They need to catalyse awareness
both among administrators and beneficiaries to achieve the objectives of conservation enunciated
in this Charter.

ARTICLE 7: Management ARTICLE 8: Education and Public Awareness
ARTICLE 7: Management
7.1 Role of local communities
7.1.1 Local communities or individuals must be entrusted with responsibilities to conserve their
own heritage. Where outside expertise is necessary, local stakeholders must be made active
participants at all stages of the conservation process. All decisions regarding the conservation
and management of heritage must be taken in consultation with local communities in consonance
with the 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution of India.
7.2 Role of INTACH
7.2.1 The role of INTACH is to institutionalise the conservation of the unprotected architectural
heritage all over India. It should accomplish this objective by establishing Local Chapters.
7.2.2 INTACH’s local Chapters should promote the culture of conservation (Article 8), and make
an inventory of architectural heritage (Article 5). They should develop ways and means to
conserve local architectural heritage in consultation with INTACH’s Regional and Central
7.2.3 Each Local Chapter should compile an annual “State of the Architectural Heritage Report”
for its area and submit annual and quinquennial plans for conservation works to be undertaken in
its locality.
7.2.4 INTACH’s Regional and Central offices should compile this data to produce an annual
national “State of the Architectural Heritage Report” which should highlight heritage in danger
and formulate conservation strategies for its protection.
7.2.5 To further facilitate its goal of protecting architectural heritage, INTACH should establish
inter-disciplinary Advisory Committees at the regional and national level. These Committees
should act as clearing-houses for awarding grading for listed buildings and sites, conservation
plans, assessment reports, scientific studies, funding proposals, legal and administrative
measures for conserving the unprotected architectural heritage.
7.2.6 INTACH should facilitate and coordinate its activities with the Government and other
interest groups, local, national and international, which are concerned with the conservation of
architectural heritage.
7.2.7 INTACH should establish appropriate benchmarks for professional fees for conservation
work and promote adherence to this scale in all conservation projects (see Article 9.1.8).
7.2.8 INTACH should review this Charter and if necessary, make amendments to it every five
7.3 Fiscal measures
7.3.1 Innovative financial schemes must be offered to individuals or communities in order to
encourage their involvement and interest in the preservation of their own heritage. INTACH’s
Advisory Committee should engage in dialogue with the Government to initiate the formulation
of appropriate fiscal policies to promote conservation.
7.3.2 INTACH should lobby for the provision for a ‘Heritage Fund’ to be included in the annual
or quinquennial budgetary allocations of Central and State governments. It should endeavour to
ensure that local governing bodies have access to these funds through transparent mechanisms.
7.3.3 The policy of the ‘adoption’ of historic buildings/areas by competent and concerned
community groups, trusts or private entrepreneurs of repute, that in no way harms the interests or
well-being of the heritage or the society in which it exists, must be encouraged.
7.3.4 The owners or caretakers of listed heritage should be offered incentives by way of
favourable tax rebates, grants, loans, transfer of development rights and so forth, in order to
encourage and foster their interest in the conservation of their cultural property.
7.3.5 Public authorities, private companies, governmental bodies and non-governmental
organisations should be encouraged to offer adequate financial assistance to traditional
craftspeople and agencies involved in craft promotion and trade.
7.4 Tourism
7.4.1 The strong affinity between tourism and heritage should be leveraged to promote the
conservation of unprotected architectural heritage and sites.
7.4.2 The potentials of domestic tourism, particularly pilgrimage tourism, need to be developed.
7.4.3 At the same time, however, there must be adequate safeguards to mitigate problems created
by aggressive tourism promotion in areas where traditional communities are associated with
unprotected architectural heritage and sites.
7.5 Punitive measures
7.5.1 Punitive measures as defined in the existing legislative framework concerning heritage
protection; town planning acts and building byelaws must be extended to cover all listed
buildings. In principle, permission must be sought for any intervention in listed buildings or
precincts. Where the opportunity exists, a new set of regulations to deal specifically with
unprotected heritage should be drafted.
7.5.2 Administrative or criminal prosecution must be considered in cases of deliberate damage to
listed architectural heritage.
ARTICLE 8: Education and Public Awareness
8.1 Public responsibilities
8.1.1 The responsibility for care and maintenance of heritage must be entrusted to the local
community, for the protection and conservation of any cultural resource is ensured only if it
enjoys the love and respect of the local people.
8.1.2 In conformity with the intent of the Constitution of India, conservation of heritage must be
the duty of every Indian citizen, and all administrative, legislative and financial assistance must
be provided in this regard at all levels.
8.2 Public awareness
8.2.1 It is essential to create public interest, awareness and concern regarding the significance of
cultural heritage, its protection, conservation and enhancement for the benefit of both present and
future generations. This public education can be achieved by utilising communication and
promotion techniques: thematic publications, print and electronic media, cultural programmes,
educational fairs, heritage site visits and excursions, exhibitions, workshops, lectures, seminars
and so on.
8.2.2 Regional, national or international historically significant days, festivals and similar
occasions could provide opportunities for community celebrations sensitively designed to draw
public attention. Such events can be organised in or around historic structures/areas thereby
reinforcing the role of heritage in the well-being of society.
8.2.3 Heritage walks can be used as an effective tool to involve local people in the informed
appreciation and protection of their historic surroundings and cultural context. Such small-scale
activities could precipitate a chain reaction of localised conservation projects involving
community participation and contribution. These collective efforts need to be publicised so that
they can serve as models to be adopted and adapted by other communities. Cultural walks
linking various historic nodes must also be tailored to promote tourism, thereby creating
economic benefits for the local community.
8.2.4 The legislation and regulations laid down in the administrative system, building by-laws,
town planning acts and other measures relevant to the protection and conservation of
architectural heritage must be made accessible to the public through user-friendly manuals and
8.2.5 Governments at all levels and their associates authorities should support and facilitate nongovernment
organisations, registered charitable trusts, heritage cooperatives and private
initiatives to organise awareness programmes highlighting various aspects of heritage
conservation, consequently informing local people of the means to deal with the challenges
involved therein.
8.3. Education in primary and secondary schools
8.3.1 Respect and affection for heritage - both natural and cultural - and concern for its
protection and conservation should be inculcated in school children, and this must form a crucial
aspect of education. Children must be encouraged to experience historic environs by engaging
them in outdoor play activities, cultural events, picnics and extra-curricular subjects involving
drawing or painting of cultural sites.
8.3.2 School teachers should be given specialised training in order to make them aware of the
issues involved in the appreciation and preservation of heritage.
8.3.3 Education curricula should include subjects on India’s natural, cultural, and living heritage
that highlight the multifaceted relationship between cultural resources and society, reinforcing
their inseparable bond.
8.4 Undergraduate education
8.4.1 The institutes, colleges and universities for the education of architects, engineers,
archaeologists, planners, administrative service officers, management professionals, material
chemists and other professions relevant to heritage conservation and management should
encourage inter-disciplinary interaction on shared issues and common concerns and inculcate a
holistic understanding of heritage with reference to social, cultural and economic aspects of the
8.4.2 The education of conservation professionals must include short training periods when
students work with master craftspeople in their own learning environment or at
building/conservation sites. This would provide an opportunity for students to acquire practical
experience in the application of skills and use of materials, thus strengthening their theoretical
8.4.3 In order to respond sensitively and constructively to India’s special conservation
challenges, conservation professionals must be trained to appreciate and integrate both traditional
and modern principles in their work.
8.5 Post-graduate education
8.5.1 In addition to history and theory of conservation, which will principally include the
Western perspective, and a thorough understanding of UNESCO, ICOMOS and other recognised
international conventions, recommendations, Charters and guidelines, the specialized education
and training of conservation professionals must build upon traditional indigenous principles and
practices of building and conservation. Professional must be trained to adopt a flexible stance
most relevant to the specificity of their own context - which will frequently require using
indigenous principles and practices - rather than adhere blindly to the conservation ideology
advocated by UNESCO/ ICOMOS and other international aid giving agencies. Working with an
inter-disciplinary team of professionals should be encouraged as an effective conservation and
management mechanism.
8.5.2 It must be stressed that conservation architects acquire hands-on experience and practical
understanding of indigenous materials and technologies through training or working with local
master craftspeople. This will facilitate a healthy and sustained relationship amongst teachers,
students and craftspeople, which can be mutually beneficial for future collaborative work on
conservation projects, training workshops, awareness programmes and so forth.
8.6 Education and training of craftspeople
8.6.1 The ideal way to preserve a craft is to practice it. In order to ensure the continuity of craft
traditions, it is essential that systematic education and training environments be provided and
supported at all levels by the Government, non-governmental organisations and private
entrepreneurs. In addition to individual initiatives of modest scale within limited resources,
NGOs can support small to medium-sized schools, and Central and State governments can
operate fully equipped training centres that specialise in traditional building and conservation
8.6.2 Building Centres set up by HUDCO (Housing and Urban Development Corporation of the
Government of India) are important initiatives that can be leveraged to promote traditional
conservation practices. These Centres train and upgrade the skills of various trades of builders,
with a focus on the use of appropriate materials and technologies. Conservation architects should
associate themselves with these Centres in order to systemise the dissemination of traditional
building principles and practices.
8.6.3 A comprehensive list of specialised crafts and craftspeople must be prepared that can serve
as a resource base for owners, care-takers or managers of heritage properties, as also for
professionals involved in the conservation and management of historic buildings/areas.
8.6.4 The monologue aspect of the modern ‘teaching’ system should be abandoned and a
dialogue of mutual ‘learning’ must be adopted as a training principle, where both the instructor
and the crafts person benefit from each other by exchanging ideas, ideologies and experiences.
Training programmes must aim toward the sustainability of indigenous building system, and
skills that are rooted in traditional knowledge bases and local cultures.
8.6.5 The education of crafts people seeking advanced skills or specialisation must reconcile the
crucial aspects of both traditional texts and techniques and modern theories and technologies,
consequently bridging the gap between indigenous and Western (glossed as ‘universal’)
principles and practices of conservation.

ARTICLE 9: Code of Professional Commitment and Practice
9.1 Conservation professionals shall:
9.1.1 Ensure that their professional activities do not conflict with their general responsibility to
contribute positively to the quality of the environment and welfare of society.
9.1.2 Apply their knowledge and skills towards the creative, responsible and economical
development of the nation and its heritage.
9.1.3 Provide professional services of a high standard, to the best of their ability.
9.1.4 Maintain a high standard of integrity.
9.1.5 Conduct themselves in a manner which is not derogatory to their professional character,
nor likely to lessen the confidence of the public in the profession, nor likely to bring
conservation professionals into disrepute.
9.1.6 Promote the profession of conservation, standards of conservation education, research,
training and practice.
9.1.7 Act with fairness and impartiality when administering a conservation contract.
9.1.8 Observe and uphold INTACH’s conditions of engagement and scale of charges, which will
be prepared in due course, in consultation with conservation professionals.
9.1.9 If in private practice, inform their client of the conditions of engagement and scale of
consultancy fee, and agree that these conditions be the basis of their appointment.
9.1.10 Not sub-commission to other professional(s) the work for which they have been
commissioned, without prior agreement of their client.
9.1.11 Not give or take discounts, commissions, gifts or other inducements for obtaining work.
9.1.12 Compete fairly with other professional colleagues.
9.1.13 Not supplant or attempt to supplant another conservation professional.
9.1.14 Not prepare project reports in competition with other professionals for a client without
payment or for a reduced fee (except in a competition conducted in accordance with the
competition guidelines approved by INTACH).
9.1.15 Not attempt to obtain, offer to undertake or accept a commission for which they know
another professional has been selected or employed until they have evidence that the selection,
employment or agreement has been terminated, and the client has given the previous professional
written notice to that effect.
9.1.16 Allow the client to consult as many professional as desired/ required provided that each
professional so consulted is adequately compensated and that the project is in the preliminary
9.1.17 Comply with guidelines for project competitions and inform INTACH of their
appointment as assessor for a competition.
9.1.18 Not have or take as partner in their firm any person who is disqualified.
9.1.19 Provide their employees with a suitable working environment, compensate them fairly
and facilitate their professional development.
9.1.20 Recognise and respect the professional contributions of their employees.
9.1.21 Provide their associates with a suitable working environment, compensate them fairly and
facilitate their professional development.
9.1.22 Recognise and respect the professional contributions of their associates.
9.1.23 Recognise and respect the professional contributions of all consultants.
9.1.24 Enter into agreements with consultants defining the scope of their work, responsibilities,
functions, fees and mode of payment.
9.1.25 Not advertise their professional services nor allow their name to be included in
advertisements or be used for publicity purposes except under the following circumstances:
i. Notice of change of address may be published on three occasions and correspondents may be
informed by post.
ii. Professionals may exhibit their name outside their office and on a conservation site, either
under implementation or completed, for which they are or were consultant, provided that the
lettering does not exceed 10 cm. in height and this in agreement with the client.
iii. Advertisements including the name and address of professionals may be published in
connection with calling of tenders, staff requirements and similar matters.
iv. Professionals may allow their name to be associated with illustrations and/or descriptions
of their work in the press or public media, provided that they neither give nor accept any
compensation for such appearances.
v. Professionals may allow their name to appear in advertisements inserted in the press by
suppliers or manufacturers of materials used in a project they have undertaken, provided that
their name is included in an unostentatious manner and they neither give nor accept any
compensation for its use.
vi. Professionals may allow their name to appear in publications prepared by clients for the
purpose of advertising or promoting projects for which they have been commissioned.
vii. Professionals may produce or publish brochures, and pamphlets describing their
experience and capabilities, for distribution to those potential clients whom they can identify
by name and position.
viii.Professionals may allow their name to appear in the classified columns of trade/
professional directories and/ or the telephone directory.
9.1.26 When working in other countries, comply with the codes of conduct applicable there.
9.2 If a conservation professional practices as a partner in a partnership firm or is in charge and
responsible to a company registered under the Companies Act 1956 for the conduct of business
of such company, he/she shall ensure that such partnership firm or company, as the case may be,
complies with the provisions of Article 9.1.
9.3 Violation of any of the provisions of Article 9.1 shall constitute professional misconduct

1. We, the experts assembled in Nara (Japan), wish to acknowledge the generous spirit and
intellectual courage of the Japanese authorities in providing a timely forum in which we could
challenge conventional thinking in the conservation field, and debate ways and means of
broadening our horizons to bring greater respect for cultural and heritage diversity to
conservation practice.
2. We also wish to acknowledge the value of the framework for discussion provided by the
World Heritage Committee's desire to apply the test of authenticity in ways which accord full
respect to the social and cultural values of all societies, in examining the outstanding universal
value of cultural properties proposed for the World Heritage List.
3. The Nara Document on Authenticity is conceived in the spirit of the Charter of Venice, 1964,
and builds on it and extends it in response to the expanding scope of cultural heritage concerns
and interests in our contemporary world.
4. In a world that is increasingly subject to the forces of globalization and homogenization, and
in a world in which the search for cultural identity is sometimes pursued through aggressive
nationalism and the suppression of the cultures of minorities, the essential contribution made by
the consideration of authenticity in conservation practice is to clarify and illuminate the
collective memory of humanity.
Cultural Diversity and Heritage Diversity
5. The diversity of cultures and heritage in our world is an irreplaceable source of spiritual and
intellectual richness for all humankind. The protection and enhancement of cultural and heritage
diversity in our world should be actively promoted as an essential aspect of human development.
6. Cultural heritage diversity exists in time and space, and demands respect for other cultures and
all aspects of their belief systems. In cases where cultural values appear to be in conflict, respect
for cultural diversity demands acknowledgment of the legitimacy of the cultural values of all
7. All cultures and societies are rooted in the particular forms and means of tangible and
intangible expression which constitute their heritage, and these should be respected.
8. It is important to underline a fundamental principle of UNESCO, to the effect that the cultural
heritage of each is the cultural heritage of all. Responsibility for cultural heritage and the
management of it belongs, in the first place, to the cultural community that has generated it, and
subsequently to that which cares for it. However, in addition to these responsibilities, adherence
to the international charters and conventions developed for conservation of cultural heritage also
obliges consideration of the principles and responsibilities flowing from them. Balancing their
own requirements with those of other cultural communities is, for each community, highly
desirable, provided achieving this balance does not undermine their fundamental cultural values.
Values and authenticity
9. Conservation of cultural heritage in all its forms and historical periods is rooted in the values
attributed to the heritage. Our ability to understand these values depends, in part, on the degree to
which information sources about these values may be understood as credible or truthful.
Knowledge and understanding of these sources of information, in relation to original and
subsequent characteristics of the cultural heritage, and their meaning, is a requisite basis for
assessing all aspects of authenticity.
10. Authenticity, considered in this way and affirmed in the Charter of Venice, appears as the
essential qualifying factor concerning values. The understanding of authenticity plays a
fundamental role in all scientific studies of the cultural heritage, in conservation and restoration
planning, as well as within the inscription procedures used for the World Heritage Convention
and other cultural heritage inventories.
11. All judgements about values attributed to cultural properties as well as the credibility of
related information sources may differ from culture to culture, and even within the same culture.
It is thus not possible to base judgements of values and authenticity within fixed criteria. On the
contrary, the respect due to all cultures requires that heritage properties must considered and
judged within the cultural contexts to which they belong.
12. Therefore, it is of the highest importance and urgency that, within each culture, recognition
be accorded to the specific nature of its heritage values and the credibility and truthfulness of
related information sources.
13. Depending on the nature of the cultural heritage, its cultural context, and its evolution
through time, authenticity judgements may be linked to the worth of a great variety of sources of
information. Aspects of the sources may include form and design, materials and substance, use
and function, traditions and techniques, location and setting, and spirit and feeling, and other
internal and external factors. The use of these sources permits elaboration of the specific artistic,
historic, social, and scientific dimensions of the cultural heritage being examined.
Suggestions for follow-up (proposed by H. Stovel)
1. Respect for cultural and heritage diversity requires conscious efforts to avoid imposing
mechanistic formulae or standardized procedures in attempting to define or determine
authenticity of particular monuments and sites.
2. Efforts to determine authenticity in a manner respectful of cultures and heritage diversity
requires approaches which encourage cultures to develop analytical processes and tools specific
to their nature and needs. Such approaches may have several aspects in common:
• efforts to ensure assessment of authenticity involve multidisciplinary collaboration and
the appropriate utilisation of all available expertise and knowledge;
• efforts to ensure attributed values are truly representative of a culture and the diversity of
its interests, in particular monuments and sites;
• efforts to document clearly the particular nature of authenticity for monuments and sites
as a practical guide to future treatment and monitoring;
• efforts to update authenticity assessments in light of changing values and circumstances.
3. Particularly important are efforts to ensure that attributed values are respected, and that their
determination included efforts to build, ad far as possible, a multidisciplinary and community
consensus concerning these values.
4. Approaches should also build on and facilitate international co-operation among all those with
an interest in conservation of cultural heritage, in order to improve global respect and
understanding for the diverse expressions and values of each culture.
5. Continuation and extension of this dialogue to the various regions and cultures of the world is
a prerequisite to increasing the practical value of consideration of authenticity in the
conservation of the common heritage of humankind.
6. Increasing awareness within the public of this fundamental dimension of heritage is an
absolute necessity in order to arrive at concrete measures for safeguarding the vestiges of the
past. This means developing greater understanding of the values represented by the cultural
properties themselves, as well as respecting the role such monuments and sites play in
contemporary society.
Appendix II
Conservation: all efforts designed to understand cultural heritage, know its history and meaning,
ensure its material safeguard and, as required, its presentation, restoration and enhancement.
(Cultural heritage is understood to include monuments, groups of buildings and sites of cultural
value as defined in article one of the World Heritage Convention).
Information sources: all material, written, oral and figurative sources which make it possible to
know the nature, specifications, meaning and history of the cultural heritage.
The Nara Document on Authenticity was drafted by the 45 participants at the Nara Conference
on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage Convention, held at Nara, Japan, from 1-6
November 1994, at the invitation of the Agency for Cultural Affairs (Government of Japan) and
the Nara Prefecture. The Agency organized the Nara Conference in cooperation with UNESCO,
This final version of the Nara Document has been edited by the general rapporteurs of the Nara
Conference, Mr. Raymond Lemaire and Mr. Herb Stovel.

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