Monday, March 05, 2007

Method of Statement in Assessing Risk for the Refurbishment of Ipoh Railway Station, Perak, Malaysia: A Case Study


Organised by: FEIIC Federation Of Engineering Institutions Of Islamic Countries, Saudi Arabia and FEIIC, Malaysia


The Ipoh Railway Station, Perak, Malaysia is believed to have been constructed in 1914. It has been recognised as one of historical buildings in the country due to its age, historical importance and architectural significance. Built with the combination of the British colonial and Moghul architectural influences mainly on its facades and roofs, the Railway Station is known locally as the “Taj Mahal” of Malaysia. The architectural style of the building is classified as the “Straits Eclectic” commonly found in many historic public buildings in Malaysia and Singapore. It portrays the unique styles of building construction and engineering. In 2002-2006, the Ipoh Railway Station has undergone refurbishment of its interior as well as exterior. This paper focuses on the method of statement in building conservation with the reference to the refurbishment of Ipoh Railway Station as its case study including an overview of the risk assessment and its issues. The paper aims to review in detail the current conditions of the building elements including foundations, walls, windows and doors, columns, first floor and mezzanine floor, roof, domes, tunnels and platforms. It also discusses the method of statements being used in the project and outlines some recommendations to conserve the building façade as well as to replace and upgrade other works deemed necessary for the new look of the Ipoh Railway Station, Perak, Malaysia.

Keywords: Building Conservation, Refurbishment, Risk Assessment, Method of Statement, Building Defects, Building Elements.

Historical Background

The Ipoh Railway Station, an architectural grandeur and pride of the city, is undergoing major refurbishment to complement Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad’s RM4.2 billion electrified double tracking project from Rawang to Ipoh. Once completed in 2007, it will blend the 90-year-old colonial atmosphere with the unique ultra-modern facilities. The completion in 1917 was delayed three years by the shortage of materials and high costs during World War 1, the station with its “Moorish” architecture ranks second in terms of elegance after Kuala Lumpur’s landmark station (A.G. Ahmad, 1997:52). Both stations were designed and construct under the supervision of a government senior architect, Arthur Benson Hubback in 1914. Hubback was the government architect in Calcutta prior to being transferred to Malaya in 1908 and the Indian experience can be seen in his workmanship. Local sources indicate that the building was originally designed as a hospital and used as such prior to the 1900’s and its subsequent conversion to the station building. The Ipoh station is sometime referred to the “Taj Mahal” of Ipoh due to its Indian influences in architecture. The architecture of the station would be classed as a “Straits Eclectic”, which is a blend of the Indian and European styling primarily found in Malacca, Penang and Singapore. The mix of architectural style between the classic Malay and European structural system and decoration has created this unique style of construction. (C.V. Fee, 2006:160-161).

Risk Assessment In Refurbishment Works

Chapman and Ward (2003) defined risk management as “an uncertain event or set of circumstances that, should it occur, will have an effect on the achievement on the project’s objectives” while The Institute of Risk Management (2002) described it as “the combination of the probability of an event and its consequences”. These definitions have common understanding of risk that is an event and its consequences with the purpose of improving performance through systematic strategies named risk management plan namely risk identification, risk analysis, risk response and, risk monitoring and control. Risk assessment is vital for refurbishment works as the design information such as specification, duration and costs are vague and inaccurate. The projects usually contain technical and economic uncertainties and risks more than new build. Mansfield and Reyers (2000) specified that it is the nature of refurbishment works that uses pre-determined information and very much dependent on the experts and specialist consultant and contractor. They suggested specific risks for refurbishment works from the commissioning agent point of view as follows:
-No guarantee of available organization with suitable experience and expertise.
-Too much reliance on the specialist or craftsmanship by the design team.
-Limited availability and prohibitive cost due to the use of original and authentic materials or component.
-Projects starts with incomplete design information with assumptions.
-Minimum statutory requirement that affect the quality of specification.

The process should start at the very beginning of refurbishment and should provide the client or user with sufficient information to start the refurbishment strategy. Mansfield and Reyers (2000) conducted research on the assessment and concluded that there is no formal approach to risk identification and analysis and the tendency to go over budget is more than any new build project while final account always exceeds the forecasted budget. Reyers and Mansfield (2001b) came out with five clusters of risks associated with conservation refurbishment projects i.e. design information risk, cost risk, client/ briefing risk, external risk and other internal parties risk. The following table gives further details of these clusters.

Risk Cluster and Risk Description

Design information risk - Inadequate completion time, incomplete site/ survey information, efficiency of contractual arrangement, clarity of specification of workmanship clauses, consistency and completeness of design information.

Cost risk - Cost and quality procedures instigated by client, reliable cost data, inadequate fee structure, changes to funding structure, invalid estimate, cash flow decisions.

Client/ briefing risk - Vague brief, inflexible requirement, over prescriptive requirement, over or under involvement in project, limited awareness of constraints and inflexible to contractors and suppliers.

External risk - Bureaucratic and slow approval procedures, statutory constraints and procedures, infrastructure charges, planning condition, interest rate.

Other internal parties risk - Continued occupancy during work, involvement of other consultants, reliable consultants, suitability of experience labour.
Table 1: Risk clusters [Source: Reyers and Mansfield, (2001b)].

Furthermore, Mansfield and Reyers (2000) provided different views of risk for refurbishment works as follows:
-Strict self-denial of archaeologist and self-confidence of creative architect resulted to balance of subjective judgment.
-Wider use of skilled labour, craftsmen and specialist contractors.
-Involvement of statutory agencies, historical associations, interests groups which lead to reduction of risk without an increase in cost as a result of good communication and procurement especially partnering.

Preparing method statement in refurbishment helps to identify what exists on site and its condition as well as to check the original scope definition. Additionally, conducting survey to the structures of the building will enable the consultant and the contractor to know the status and the level modification needed and decide how to deal with it. For the purpose of this paper, the authors will not discuss in detail on the risk assessment activities but on the results of the identification, assessment and the method of how to respond with the situation. As such, this project uses a very simple assessment method, begins with building investigation and followed by analysis of the defects and preparation of the method statement in responding to the situation. However, the process should not stop here but followed by monitoring the actions and managing the feedback instead.

Building Investigation

Building investigation is defined by M.D. Spada (2002:4) as an examination and observation of the exterior and interior of buildings including the grounds, the structure, and the mechanical systems to determine structural defects, broken or obsolete components, and damage due to water, wear and tear, and other conditions. Before any refurbishment project started, a building investigation has to be carried out to obtain sufficient information about the building condition. The purpose of building investigation according to D.S. Watt (1999:1) is to identify, investigate and diagnosis of defects in existing buildings; and also to recommend for the most appropriate course of action. Various physical aspects of building investigation referring to D. Friedman (2000:19) include : identifying types of building systems; looking for evidence of material deterioration from weathering; and identifying combinations of movement, defects, deterioration and load effects. For the Ipoh Railway Station, the building is basically a two storey building with a mezzanine floor predominantly brick columns and load bearing walls supporting plate girder floor beams with mass filled concrete floor slabs. The structure supports three major domes and six smaller domes, these being the architectural features of the structure. J.S. Higgs (2000:3-20). The results of the building investigation are as follows:

i. Foundation
After undertaking trial pits at the edge of the structure, including a non-destructive tests on the internal columns, the building to be founded on spread footing for the walls and larger pad foundations for the columns. The column foundation is on graded hard-core materials with depth varying from 8-9 ft below existing ground level. The spread footings for the walls were measured to be approximately 3 ft below ground level and 1.6 to 2 ft wide. The concrete use in the footings had the consistency of reconstituted stone. By inspection, the concrete was manufactured from volume ratio of 3:3:2, 20 mm stone, 6mm size stone and below, Ordinary Portland Cement. The footings for the walls or ground beam are of similar construction.

Building defects
The individual capacity of the pad footings for the columns is considered to be in excess of 400 tonnes which would correspond to a typical dimension of the columns used in the structure. Similarly, the spread footings under the bearing walls are considered to have a capacity of 600 tonnes per metre run. Given the age of the structure and that all construction settlement would have been complete by now, the foundations are deemed sufficient for their intended purpose of use.

ii. Walls
The supporting walls are 18” thick being constructed with a London or Staffordshire stock brick. There are some instances of local clay brick; however, predominantly The bricks are laid in alternate stretcher and bearer courses. The access through the walls into the building and public areas are via doors and large arches. The doorways are supported with steel lintels and finished in either a curved or triangle voussoirs architectural feature. The arch openings within the building are a crossetted voussoirs circular arch. The arches on the main dome and front face of the building are constructed by a curve voussoirs stone construction. Both arch types contain keystones and are supported by quoins at the shoulders interlocked into an Ashlar walling construction.

Building defects
An extensive tapping survey was undertaken and little to no debonding of the stucco was detected. All the exterior walls/columns are in good repair. There are signs of effervescence on the south-west and south of the building, however, though this may be related to the paint materials used in the periodic repainting of the structure. There is some lime burns associated with birds’ nests within the main arch under the main dome. In areas where leaking is noticeable especially from the mezzanine floor and 1st floor bathrooms to the hotel rooms paint peeling and checking has occurred with noticeable mould growth present. Penetration of the mould is small and it is not considered dis-abilitating.

iii. Windows and doors
The majority of windows and doors are original and manufactured from hard wood. The door panelling and window frames are entailed with additional panelling and mesh overlay specifically for the windows. Various architectural features are incorporated for the windows and doors. These varies from shaped transom to voussoirs. The walls feature various stone stepping and indentation generally considered as entablature and occasional pediment especially over the window areas.

Building defects
Where accessible the window frames were tested for homogeneity soundness and condition of paintwork. The test involves the penetration of the wood using a point or screwdriver. All original woodwork and joinery which is believed to be dated from the time of the original construction are in good condition. The timber is sound with little to no presence of rot or infestation. Substantial checking of paintwork has occurred exposing large areas of wood however the wood in these of gloss and crazing. These conditions are due to the over painting of the old oil based paints with newer water based paints. The windowpanes are all intact with isolated broken panes. The majority of the panes are well fixed and rattle free. All doors and openings are serviceable. Internal modern door fixtures within the building require repairs specifically re-hanging and refining of fixtures.

iv. Columns
The columns are constructed with brick with a stucco concrete finish. Rounded columns are pinned and constructed from a reconstituted stone similar to the footings. The columns or column arches together with the keystone arches form a classic pillar and arch construction. This construction is topped with a spreading plate girder beam. Within the structure there are a number of steel columns. These columns are boxed within a reinforced plaster encasement. These columns occur alternatively along the front of the building and internally. Internally these columns are situated in the shopping area, main entrance and Post Office.

Building defects
Estimation of capacities of the present structure is given based on the condition of the building. Structurally the building is considered sound. Dimensional checks on the columns indicate that the affected width to height ration of the columns and load bearing walls is less than 15. This would be consistent with the code of practices in force at the time of construction. A typical column would have an average ultimate capacity in the region of 300 metric tones. Wall capacities are rated at approximately 450 metric tones per metre run off wall constructed. Given the method of the construction all loads applied to the masonry are distributed through plate girder beams and therefore can be considered as uniformly distributed with no moment applied.

v. 1st. Floor and mezzanine floor
The 1st floor and mezzanine floors are supported on plate girders. These support beams form the foundation for the remaining superstructure construction. The floor slabs are a construction of 8 x 5 x 28 lb/ft run transom beams at 3 feet centres cast into a 30mm (12”) thick concrete. This slab rests on top of the spreading beams.

Building defects
The 1st floor tiles in the main restaurant area are in good condition, however, there are signs of negative bending cracking moments over the beams .The majority of the tiles is in-place and uncracked with the exception of the beam line areas. The ground floor flooring is recent and tiled. Normal cracking is expected for this type of floor.

vi. Roofs
The roof trusses are constructed from steel section with timber ridge beams. The roof truss is of a king post design with the major vertical being a 75 x 75 x 6mm equal angle. The rafters are formed by a 75 x 75 x 6mm equal T section steel with the queen post also 75 x 75 x 6mm angle and intermediate hangers of 65 x 12mm flat bar. The roof is hipped gable type over the major length of the building with annexes at each ends and middle end entrance. The major 150 x 75mm hard wood purlin support additional 100 x 50mm hard wood rafters at 400mm which in turn support the 50 x 25mm hard wood minor purlin. The roofing fabric is 12”x8” interlocking Tuscany clay roof tiling of French origin covers the assembly. The titles were manufactured in southern France. The roof is vented to a special half dome clay tile and louvers in the gable ends of the roof. The upper floor ceiling is a ¼” to 3/8” thick mild steel profiled plating. This is stiffened with 50 x 25mm hard wood batten pinned to 150 x 75mm hard wood joist at 600 centres. In its present occupation, the upper floors contain false ceilings of plaster board retained within aluminium angle which in turn is hung from the original steel roof joists by means of 65 x 12mm flat bar.

Building defects
The whole of the internal and external roof areas were checked. The structural steel within the roof areas is in good condition. The ridge timbers and the major purlin along the major rooflines are still serviceable and show little to no sign of rot. The major purlin at the jack roof, the portion of the roof which overhangs the wall, does contain rot. Penetration tests which are standard for this type of timber decay were able to penetrate through the timber. These rot areas are concentrated on the south and eastern side of the roof. The timber purlin secondary rafter and minor purlin in the gable end and hop gable are in poor condition and extensively rotted. The roof and tiles are in a sorry state of repair. Approximately 40% of the tiles are cracked, dislodged or missing. The cast iron access doors to the roof are broken with the door unit missing and doorframes partially removed. Temporary repairs to the roof are haphazard consisting of either felt or tin plate.

vii. Domes
The three major domes are constructed from mass concrete and extended angle iron. The major dome at the centre of the building has a featured steel frame in which mass concrete has been laid to form the dome. The smaller domes have steel work support however concealed. All three main domes have 12” x 6” ring beams. The small minaret dome at the various corners of the building are constructed with brick resting on a cast stone ring beam. The exterior of the domes are covered with a bitumen coating and painted.

Building defects
The three major domes are in good condition. However, there are indications of dilapidation of brickwork infill panels to the steel framework. The level of corrosion is less than 1mm and steel work would be considered to be pristine condition.

viii. Tunnels and platforms
There are two proven access tunnels between the platforms and the main building. The shorter of the two presently in use connects platform 1 to platform 2, 3 and to platform 4, 5. In both cases, the tunnels are constructed of brick walls founded on mass concrete footings with a steel beam roof with mass concrete infill. Over the platform areas, the beams are 8 x 5 x 28 lbs/ft run section placed at 2’ centres. The tunnels are lowered at the railway lines forming a railway bridge where the beam centres are 12”. The thickness of the roof varies between 350 and 400mm and is considered due to construction methods used at the time. The floor of the tunnels is mass concrete with a light steel reinforcement present. Tunnel 1 terminates at the edge of platform 5 into a store, which is bricked up at approximately the platform edge. Indications are that this tunnel extends to the amenity shop (the original 1875 station) Tunnel 2 is presently abandoned however; it extends from the existing 1875 station waiting room into the KTM security office. The platforms are constructed in a filled embankment contained within a 450mm brick retaining wall. The formation is a compacted fill over laid by 600mm of 2” down compacted stone overlaid by bedded 125mm plain concrete slab toped with a sand bedded 2’ by 3’, 2” flag stone pavement.

Building defects
The tunnel fabrics are in good condition with the minor exception of a few cracks and dislodged ceramic tiles in the tunnels. Tunnel 2 is subject to flooding due to the removal of the water pump at the old existing waiting room access stairs sump. Both tunnels are in excellent condition showing no signs of distress apart from the occasional cracked ceramic tile in tunnel 1 and additional seepage or water ingress between platform 5 and existing waiting room in tunnel 3. Indications are that some of this water ingress is due to the flooding over air vent number 4. The electrical system is intact within tunnel 2, however, was at some time disconnected. The platforms are level and free of major steps. It is noted that a number of flagstones are cracked, this is to be expected.

Recommendations For Refurbishment
According to E. Burden (2004:212), refurbishment means to bring an existing building up to standard, or to make it suitable for a new use by renovations, or by installing new equipment, fixtures, furnishing and finishes. D. Highfield (2000:1) referred building refurbishment as part of repair, restoration and extension. Meanwhile referring to P. Marsh (1983:3), refurbishment should not be confused with conservation, although it does conserve the old and thus helps to preserve a continuous and evident building tradition. Refurbishment is also nothing to do with maintenance whereby maintenance will have to be carried out on the existing structure. The recommendations for refurbishment of Ipoh Railway Station are based on the information obtained from the previous building investigation. They are considered as the minimal repairs to enable the building to be fit for its purpose of use. The recommendations are also based on a service life of an additional 20 years on the assumption of a regular maintenance. J.S. Higgs (2000:21-25). The following are some of the examples of proposed method statement for the refurbishment work on major building elements such as:

i. Walls
Given that there is no debonding of the stucco finishes in the walls except for the minor areas where services have been laid and poorly repaired, the recommendations are confined to finishing and paint work.

Proposed method statement
· Wire brush or light power brushing of the walls to remove all detritus materials paint flakes and bird lime.
· Power jetting is not recommended as this may cause crack propagation and bursting through water hammer of the stucco and brickwork.
· Removal of mould and fungus growth due to leakages. After wire brushing all the growth material away apply cleaning solution to leach out the existing mould spores prior to the painting. There are in existence proprietary cleaning materials however tests will have to be undertaken to ensure that they do not cause a breakdown of the cementitious screed and mortar bond strengths.
· On completion of the preparation work apply CO2 inhibitor. The characteristic of this inhibitor should be that it maintains the porosity of the wall however it inhibits the passage or transition of the carbonic acid molecule.
· Apply two coats of proprietary preferably acrylic non-oil based paint or coatings. Generally these coatings provide a 10 year guarantee subject to application procedures being adhered to.

ii. Windows and doors
It is proposed that only paint re-application is required for the exterior woodwork and that the interior woodwork is subject to interior design requirements. A standard paint preparation can be applied similar to the following.

Proposed method statement
· Wire brush and remove any detritus materials down to existing and stable paintwork.
· Apply one coat of water base polymer paint undercoat to manufacturer’s specification.
· After application of undercoat, allow undercoat to dry for at least 24 hours then apply two coats of top coat of proprietary gloss paint.
· No heat removal of existing paintwork is allowed.
· Apply new paint coatings, which can vary from the recommended provided manufacturer’s method of application specification is adhered to.

iii. Roofs
There are two possible courses of action for the rehabilitation on the roof. These are divided into complete replacement or removal and partial replacement of the roof. It is estimated that removal of the existing tiles would result in only 50% of the original tiles that could be re-used in the new roof. Matching of the old and new tiles may prove difficult. If this course was proceeded with then it would be recommended that the existing tiles be used on the front side of the building with the newer tiles being placed at the rear. Tuscany roof tiles are still being manufactured in Australia and Europe. Given the size of the roof, it will be reasonably economic to import sufficient tiles for a complete re-roofing. Therefore our recommendation is to remove all the existing tiles and replace with modern Tuscany tiling.

Proposed method statement
· Remove all roof tiles progressively exposing two trusses at a time.
· Store all intact tiles and discard broken ones.
· Remove all rotted timber and replace with treated hard wood equivalent grade material.
· On removal and replacement of existing timber all timber members are to be retreated with fungal inhibitor.
· Fix new tiles to manufacturer’s specification and recommendation.
· The provision of aluminium wrap covering to the purlins prior to the installation of the roof tiles is not recommended.
· The tiling system if installed correctly should provide adequate water proofing and allows venting so as to keep the roof temperature down.
· On completion of the works, the tiles are to be painted with an anti fungal polymer clear paint or glaze. This treatment will depend on manufacturer’s recommendation.
· On all structures in the absence of an aluminium or felt underlay to the tiles a caulking is provided at the purlin tile fixture. Given our previous comments this is not be required.
· In the original roof design approximately 1 in 20 tiles contain the half dome ventilation tile. These are readily available and a similar pattern of venting within the roof tiles should be maintained in the new roof.

iv. Domes
As this structure is steel supported, the overall structural stability of the dome is not in question. However, there are indications of dilapidation of brickwork infill panels to the steel framework. We would, therefore, recommend that our repairs are concentrated towards the repair and reinstatement of the integrity of these infill panels.

Proposed method statement
· Construct temporary works within the main dome such that propping and easy access can be made to the inside of the dome.
· Hack and remove material plaster exposing brickwork.
· Partial remove mortar bedding and re-point.
· Apply proprietary bonding agents together with polyfibre mesh and replaster.
· Exterior- remove bitumen coatings to expose original concrete finishes.
· Cut out, mark and chase 15mm deep V-channel at mirror cracking locations those corresponding to the backing steel work.
· Prepare surface and apply low pressure epoxy with suitable filler such that the epoxy strength is reduced to a comparable strength of the brickwork.
· Apply metal cladding to the exterior dome cut and lapped weather wise. Depending on the material used either Copper, Titanium or shining Zinc a backing material may be required.

v. Tunnels and platforms
The recommendations are specifically aimed at tunnel 2 at southern most and presently the abandoned tunnel.

Proposed method statement
· Pump dry and clean out mud and debris from the tunnel.
· Install new automatic sub pump similar to the present or better than the pump used in the present active tunnel.
· Given the length of the tunnel, open and re-establish air vents to the far side of platform 5.
· Re-grout existing walls and roof tiles, replacing cracked tiles where possible and clean to restore glaze finish.
· Rewire internal lighting and re-fix lighting fixture.
· Remove present grills and supporting fixture to the enclosing grills.
· Undertake temporary hoarding and enclosure of the access at the existing waiting room.
· Break out and re-establish stair case to KTM security office subject to architectural and design requirement.

It can be concluded from the assessment that the Ipoh railway station and its approached tunnels are structurally sound. The most imposing portion of the station is the three-storey concrete building which houses the railway administrative offices as well as the Majestic Station Hotel which occupies the mezzanine and upper floors. Except for a new coat of paint, minor repairs and a change of roofing, the main structure and the facade of the heritage building would remain unchanged. The bulk of the refurbishment works would be on the platform area located behind the station building. The platform roof, with an ultra modern design would take the shape of an inverse curve, spanning over two new platforms. The tracks would be re-aligned to bring them further away from the station building. New features at the platform area are elevators, escalators and overhead bridges for passengers to get from one platform to another. The Ipoh railway station would be maintained as it was a heritage building.

Reference and Bibliography
1. A.G. Ahmad (1997). British Colonial Architecture in Malaysia 1800-1930, Museums Association of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
2. C. Chapman & S. Ward (2003); Transforming Project Risk Management into Project Uncertainty Management; International Journal of Project Management, 21 (2003): Pp 97-105
3. C.V. Fee (2006). Landmarks of Perak, Raja Nazrin Shah Publications Sdn. Bhd. Kuala Lumpur.
4. D. Friedman (2000). The Investigation of Buildings, W.W. Norton & Company, New York.
5. D. Highfield (1991). The Construction of New Buildings Behind Historic Façades, E & FN Spoon, London.
6. D. Highfiled (2000). Refurbishment and Upgrading of Buildings. E & FN Spoon. London.
7. D.S. Watt (1999). Building Pathology; Principles and Practice, Blackwell Science, Oxford.
8. E. Burden (2004). Illustrated Dictionary of Architectural Preservation, Mc Graw Hill, New York.
9. J. Mansfield & J. Reyers (2000); Conservation Refurbishment Projects: A Comparative Assessment of Risk Management Approach; The Cutting Edge-The Real Estate Research Conference of the RICS Research Foundation, Sept 6-8, 2000.
10. J. Reyers & J. Mansfield (2001a); A Practitioner Perspective on Risk Management in Conservation Refurbishment Projects; COBRA Conference papers.
11. J. Reyers & J. Mansfield (2001b); The Assessment of Risk in Conservation Refurbishment Projects; Structural Survey,Vol.19[5], 2001, pp 238-244.
12. J.S. Higgs (2000). Structural Assessment and Re-measurement Survey for Ipoh Railway Station, Materials Consultants (Asia) Sdn. Bhd., Selangor.
13. M. Zulqarnain (2004). Conservation of Heritage Cities in Ipoh, Ipoh City Council Reports, Perak.
14. M.D. Spada (2002). The Home Inspection Book, South-Western, Ohio.
15. N. Tyler (2000). Historic Preservation, An Introduction to its History, Principles and Practice, W.W. Norton & Company, New York.
16. N.M. Akhir (2004). Progress Reports: Extension and Renovation of Ipoh Station. Kinta Samudra-Kinta Kellas Consortium. Perak.
17. P. Hoffmann (2004). Project Summary: Electrified Double Track Project Between Rawang and Ipoh, DRB Hicom, Kuala Lumpur.
18. P. Marsh (1983). The Refurbishment of Commercial and Industrial Buildings, Construction Press, London.
19. The Institute of Risk Management (IRM), The Association of Insurance and Risk Managers (AIRMIC) & ALARM The National Forum for Risk Management in the Public Sector (ALARM) (2002); Risk Management Standard
20. V.P.Sujata (2002). Ipoh Railway Station Under Refurbishment, The Star Newspaper, August 23rd, Kuala Lumpur.

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