Monday, March 05, 2007

Pilot Survey on The Conservation of Historical Buildings in Malaysia

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2nd. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 2008 "SUSTAINEBLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT: BRIDGING THEORY AND PRACTICE", 3-4th. DECEMBER 2008, UNIVERSITY SCIENCE MALAYSIA

mailto:³aghafar@usm.edu.my
ABSTRACT: Historic buildings basically represents the single most visible aspect of our past history and culture. Like most other countries in the world, Malaysia has a rich legacy of historic buildings with outstanding craftsmanship and architecture quality. They form an impressive historic features and heritage of the past work of man. It is important to conserve and preserve historic buildings because they provide a sense of identity and continuity in a fast changing world for future generations. However some of these buildings are at risk from defects and are not being well cared for due to lack of technical knowledge and high cost of repair and maintenance. The purpose of this paper intends to highlight the existing conditions of historical buildings in Malaysia with the main focus on the conditions of building defects and conservation approach to these buildings. To do so, a pilot survey has been conducted on several heritage towns and cities based on the existing heritage trail in Malaysia. The broad objective of this pilot survey is to examine the level of building defects and the location of building defects that normally occur at various types of historical buildings in Malaysia. At the same time, it will also look into the conservation approaches that has been done to these historical buildings either the method are acceptable according to the basic principles and philosophy of building conservation. It is expected that this paper could contribute some benefits to the owners, consultants, contractors, conservators, various government agencies, heritage body and by all those who concerned with the care and conservation of historic buildings in Malaysia.

Keywords: Pilot Survey, Heritage Trail, Historical Buildings, Building Defects, Building Conservation.

1. INTRODUCTION
Malaysia’s history is largely embedded in its architecture, social and cultural fabric, and of these the architectural fabric is probably the most enduring one. Recently, the historical building conservation and maintenance can be considered as a popular method use in Malaysia. In fact, historic building is an important element in town development which can be seen in some cities in the world. It plays an important role in defining the landmark within the urban area as well as generating income and boosting the tourism industry. Historic buildings according to Fielden (2000) is one that gives us a sense of wonder and makes us want to know more about people and culture that produced it. From the first act of its creation, through its long life to the present day, historic buildings have artistic and human messages, which will be revealed by a study of its history. A complexity of ideas and of cultures may be said to encircle historic buildings and be reflected in it. Malaysia has a rich legacy of historic buildings, they form an impressive heritage of the past works of man. As documents of the past, historic buildings are important as a source of historical materials as the paper and parchment used by historians. Therefore it is important to conserve and preserve historic buildings because it provides a sense of identity and continuity in a fast changing world.

Since the building boom of the 1970s, many of Malaysia’s historic buildings have been demolished. Recent large scale urban development continues to threaten pre-war buildings, while other historic buildings are simply deteriorating due to age, neglect and high cost of maintenance. Fee (1998) expressed that to lose these buildings, however is effectively to obliterate historical memories, and there is now increasing pressure from various segments of the community to conserve the nation’s historical heritage. As we all known that conservation is the action taken to prevent decay, embracing all acts that prolong the life of cultural and natural heritage. Building conservation according to (Fielden, 2000; Insall, 1972) relates specifically to the process of repair, maintenance and restoration of historic buildings which aim to prolong a building’s life and function. In Malaysia, the practice of building conservation is considered new. Laws for historic building conservation are established throughout legislation whereby a national inventory of historic buildings includes lists and schedules of old buildings for protection. Example of historic buildings in Malaysia according to Ahmad (1997) are mosque, churches, palaces, clock towers, prisons, government offices, institutional and commercials, residential, schools, railway stations, hotels, forts and monuments.

2. AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The overall aim of this research is to have specific knowledge associated with defects in Malaysia historical buildings like; to determine the locations, types and causes of defect so that specific action can be carried out to overcome the problems as described before. Meanwhile the overall outcome of this research is to be able to recognize and diagnose defects at each building element in historic buildings. Previously much has been published about building defects, their causes and cures, but unfortunately the information is scattered over a wide range of publications and not easily accessible. There are also a number of excellent texts, studies and research conducted on building defects but these tends to be either highly technical and/or specific to certain type of defects or building materials and did not cover on the overall elements of the buildings. Moreover, the published advice on remedial work often assumes that the cause of the failure is already known; in practice, although the symptoms will be apparent, the under laying factors may be obscure. If a wrong diagnosis is made, the treatment is unlikely to be successful and money will be wasted. Actually there is a need for a guide to study about the defects and aid the correct diagnosis of defects because prevention is better than cure, and something have to be done to reduce the frequency of defects especially to historic buildings by choosing appropriate approaches, methods, techniques and materials. Therefore it is worth to do this research. There are four primary objectives in this research that need to be fulfilled to ensure that the overall aim of this research is achieved. The objectives are as follows:
1. To determine the conditions of building defects at Malaysia historical buildings.
2. To determine whether the historical buildings in Malaysia has been conserved accordingly to the conservation guidelines.
3. To determine the locations of defects at historic buildings.
4. To identify whether the conservation approach has been carried out practically.

3. APPROACH AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The approach used in this research starts with the overview of historic buildings in Malaysia. The literature review is mainly acquired from published books, research papers, seminar papers and journals. The research is further reinforced by formulating a set of questionnaires and handed over to owners or occupants of selected historic buildings in Malaysia. The questionnaire will be tabulated, summarized and analyzed accordingly to the research objectives to obtain findings. The background information of this research is obtained by various methods and the collection of new data is necessary to get the accurate result. The data regarding defects in historic buildings is collected by two main methods as follows:
1. Observations through site survey/pilot survey where data is obtained from a visual inspection of defects at its exact location or based on building elements.
2. Questionnaires as mention before where data is collected by preparing a series of structured questions related to conservation approach at the historical buildings.

4. PILOT SURVEY ON THE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS IN MALAYSIA
Building conservation has long been of concern, although its popular application is relatively recent in origin, particularly in Malaysia. In the past few years, many historic buildings have been preserved and conserved while others have been converted to become premises for a bank, restaurant, information centre or a printing office. Malaysia is one of the fortunate countries that have many historic buildings which are of immense architectural and historical value. An inventory study undertaken in 1992 and 1993 by the Heritage Trust of Malaysia in conjunction with the National Museum, the Housing and Local Government Ministry and Faculty of Built Environment, University Technology Malaysia (UTM), reveals that there are near 39,000 historic buildings built between 1800 and 1948 throughout the country which are worthy for preservation and conservation. Buildings built within these periods are classified as ‘pre-war buildings’ due to their year of build, ranging from 1800 to 1948. Listed in Table 1 is the number of ‘pre-war buildings’ located in 247 cities and towns nationwide:


Table 1. The Distribution of Pre-War Urban Buildings in Malaysia.
No States No of Historical Buildings Percentage of Historical Buildings
1. Penang 5,057 (24.30%)
2. Perak 3,351 (16.10%)
3. Johore 2,323 (11.20%)
4. Malacca 2,177 (10.50%)
5. Kuala Lumpur 1,763 (8.40%)
6. Kedah 1,282 (6.12%)
7. Selangor 1,166 (5.60%)
8. Sarawak 1,010 (4.90%)
9. Negeri Sembilan 999 (4.80%)
10. Pahang 831 (4.00%)
11. Terengganu 420 (2.00%)
12. Kelantan 373 (1.80%)
13. Perlis 25 (0.10%)
14. Sabah 10 (0.05%)
Total 20,787 (100.0%)
Source: Idid (1995).

To make sure that the objectives of this research can be achieved, a pilot survey has been conducted towards Malaysia historical buildings. Among the objectives of this pilot survey was to to get a clear understandings related to a few aspects such as the research area, scope, needs and focus before the next stage of the research can be carried out. Therefore, there are 209 historical buildings has been choosen for this pilot survey at four main heritage towns and cities in Malaysia. The selection of the historical buildings and town/cities are refered to the list of historical buildings listed in Kuala Heritage Trails, Ipoh Heritage Trails, George Town Heritage Trails and Bandar Hilir Heritage Trails as prepared and provided by the experts from Badan Warisan Malaysia, Perak State Goverment, Penang Heritage Trust and Malacca Museum Corporation.


Table 2. List of Historical Buildings involved in the Pilot Survey.
No Name of Historical Buildings Location Year Built
1. Jamek Mosque Kuala Lumpur 1909
2. Old Survey Department Kuala Lumpur 1910
3. Old City Hall Kuala Lumpur 1904
4. Old High Court Kuala Lumpur 1915
5. Sultan Abdul Samad Building Kuala Lumpur 1897
6. Old Post Office Kuala Lumpur 1907
7. Industrial Court Kuala Lumpur 1905
8. Textile Museum Kuala Lumpur 1905
9. National History Museum Kuala Lumpur 1888
10. Kuala Lumpur Memorial Library Kuala Lumpur 1899
11. Royal Selangor Club Kuala Lumpur 1890
12. St. Mary Church Kuala Lumpur 1895
13. P.A.M. Building Kuala Lumpur 1903
14. E.K.R.A.N. House Kuala Lumpur 1937
15. Central Market Kuala Lumpur 1936
16. 32 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
17. 34 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
18. 36 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
19. 38 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
20. 40 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
21. 42 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
22. 44 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
23. 46 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
24. 48 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
25. 50 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
26. 52 Jln. Hang Kasturi Kuala Lumpur 1909
27. O.C.B.C. Building Kuala Lumpur 1938
28. Medan Pasar Kuala Lumpur 1937
29. 2 Medan Pasar Kuala Lumpur 1906
30. 4 Medan Pasar Kuala Lumpur 1906
31. 6 Medan Pasar Kuala Lumpur 1906
32. Gian Singh Building Kuala Lumpur 1909
33. Bumiputra Commerce Bank Kuala Lumpur 1930
34. 16 Lebuh Ampang Kuala Lumpur 1930
35. 18 Lebuh Ampang Kuala Lumpur 1930
36. 24 Lebuh Ampang Kuala Lumpur 1930
37. 26 Lebuh Ampang Kuala Lumpur 1930
38. 28 Lebuh Ampang Kuala Lumpur 1930
39. 30 Lebuh Ampang Kuala Lumpur 1930
40. 32 Lebuh Ampang Kuala Lumpur 1930
41. 85 Lebuh Ampang Kuala Lumpur 1930
42. 34 Jln. Tun H.S. Lee Kuala Lumpur 1880
43. 36 Jln. Tun H.S. Lee Kuala Lumpur 1880
44. 38 Jln. Tun H.S. Lee Kuala Lumpur 1880
45. 40 Jln. Tun H.S. Lee Kuala Lumpur 1880
46. Old Federal Warehouse Building Kuala Lumpur 1905
47. M.S. Ally Company Kuala Lumpur 1907
48. Old Bank Simpanan Kuala Lumpur 1914
49. Sze Ya Temple Kuala Lumpur 1864
50. Lee Rubber Building Kuala Lumpur 1930
51. Kwong Siew Association Kuala Lumpur 1888
52. Sri Mahamariamman Temple Kuala Lumpur 1920
53. Old Police Station Jln. Tun H.S. Lee Kuala Lumpur 1895
54. Victoria Institution Kuala Lumpur 1893
55. Old Post Office Jln. Panggung Kuala Lumpur 1886
56. Old Chinese Café Kuala Lumpur 1930
57. Chan See Shu Yuen Association Kuala Lumpur 1906
58. Funeral Shop Kuala Lumpur 1900
59. Colonial Hotel Kuala Lumpur 1930
60. Yan Keng Drama Association Kuala Lumpur 1920
61. Selangor Merchantile Shop Association Kuala Lumpur 1920
62. Masjid India Kuala Lumpur 1863
63. 23 Jln. Melayu Kuala Lumpur 1870
64. 25 Jln. Melayu Kuala Lumpur 1870
65. 27 Jln. Melayu Kuala Lumpur 1870
66. 29 Jln. Melayu Kuala Lumpur 1870
67. 31 Jln. Melayu Kuala Lumpur 1870
68. 33 Jln. Melayu Kuala Lumpur 1870
69. 35 Jln. Melayu Kuala Lumpur 1870
70. 1 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
71. 3 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
72. 5 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
73. 7 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
74. 9 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
75. 11 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
76. 13 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
77. 15 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
78. 17 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
79. 19 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1915
80. P.H. Hendry Kuala Lumpur 1920
81. 8 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1900
82. 32 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1900
83. 42 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1900
84. 106 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1900
85. Coliseum Cinema Kuala Lumpur 1921
86. Rex & Tivoli Hotel Kuala Lumpur 1930
87. 150 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
88. 152 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
89. 154 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
90. 156 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
91. 158 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
92. 160 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
93. 162 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
94. 164 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
95. Odeon Cinema Kuala Lumpur 1936
96. Lee Wong Kee Kuala Lumpur 1926
97. 233 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
98. 235 Jln. Tuanku Abdul Rahman Kuala Lumpur 1939
99. Globe Silk Store Kuala Lumpur 1930
100. P. Lal Store Kuala Lumpur 1930
101. Chotirmall Kuala Lumpur 1930
102. City Hall Building Ipoh 1916
103. Ipoh Railway Station Ipoh 1917
104. Chung Thye Pin Building Ipoh 1907
105. High Court Ipoh 1928
106. Perdagangan Selat Building Ipoh 1907
107. S.P.H. De Silva Ipoh 1950
108. Leong Yew Firm Ipoh 1913
109. State Medical Office Ipoh 1920
110. M.B.I. Parking Building Ipoh 1962
111. Perak Hydro Building Ipoh 1930
112. Merchantile Bank Ipoh 1931
113. Chartered Bank Ipoh 1924
114. Central Police Station Ipoh 1911
115. St. John Church Ipoh 1912
116. Dramatis Hostel Ipoh 1920
117.Hongkong & Shanghai Bank Ipoh 1931
118. Perak Ku Kong Chow Kung Wu Association Ipoh 1928
119. Kian Aik Chan Ipoh 1930
120. Pakistan Mosque Ipoh 1930
121. Seenivasagam Office and Residential Ipoh 1900
122. Ali Pitchay Town House Ipoh 1940
123. Kin Kwok Daily Newspaper Ipoh 1930
124. Jan Sahib Office Ipoh 1930
125. Villa Jaya Ipoh 1930
126. Mikasa Photo Shop Ipoh 1908
127. Ipoh Royal Club Ipoh 1898
128. Panglima Lane Ipoh 1890
129. Kinta Commerce School Ipoh 1950
130. Yat Loo Club & Miners Association Ipoh 1935
131. Kinta Aerated Water Ipoh 1930
132. Star Publication Ipoh 1930
133. Straits Commerce Warehouse Ipoh 1930
134. Ambika Property Office Ipoh 1930
135. St. Michael Institution Ipoh 1923
136. Federal Malay States Bar & Restaurant Ipoh 1923
137. Eu Tong Seng Ipoh 1907
138. Padang Bandar Mosque Ipoh 1908
139. Oversea Building Ipoh 1930
140. Guan Yin Temple Ipoh 1878
141. Foong Seong Villa Ipoh 1931
142. Sinhalese Bar Ipoh 1930
143. Kampung Jawa Malay House Ipoh 1886
144. Han Chin Pet Soo Ipoh 1929
145. Lam Looking Bazaar Ipoh 1933
146. Kampung Paloh Mosque Ipoh 1912
147. Old Kinta Fire Brigade Ipoh 1913
148. Singapore Cold Storage Ipoh 1930
149. King George the V Rotary Club House Ipoh 1935
150. Chua Cheng Bok Building Ipoh 1930
151. Pa Lo Ku Miao Temple Ipoh 1872
152. Warta Kinta Office Ipoh 1940
153. Information Centre Ipoh 1940
154. Times of Malaya Building Ipoh 1930
155.Oriental Hotel Ipoh 1930
156. Mo Ching House Ipoh 1930
157. Dato' Sri Adika Raja House Ipoh 1910
158. Syabil Kathigasu House Ipoh 1930
159. Dato' Panglima Kinta House Ipoh 1898
160. Perak Chinese Dramatis Association Ipoh 1939
161. Yau Tet Shin Bazaar Ipoh 1961
162. St. Michael Church Ipoh 1924
163. Convent School Ipoh 1927
164. Malay Women School Ipoh 1920
165. Lam Look Ing Villa Ipoh 1930
166. Chinese Association Building Ipoh 1930
167. Kampung Kuchai House Ipoh 1903
168. Japanese Military Headquarters Ipoh 1930
169. Fort Cornwallis George Town 1808
170. State Hall George Town 1874
171. City Hall George Town 1906
172. Town Hall George Town 1883
173. High Court Building George Town 1905
174. Convent School George Town 1852
175. State Museum George Town 1821
176. St. George Church George Town 1818
177. Peranakan Penang House George Town 1890
178. Tua Pek Kong Temple George Town 1900
179. Goddess of Mercy Temple George Town 1800
180. Little India Shop House George Town 1900
181. Mahamariamman Temple George Town 1833
182. Teochew Temple George Town 1870
183. Kapitan Kling Mosque George Town 1801
184. Yap Kongsi Temple George Town 1924
185. Dr Sun Yat Sen House George Town 1880
186. Syed Alatas Mansion George Town 1850
187. Lebuh Acheh Malay Mosque George Town 1808
188. Khoo Kongsi George Town 1906
189. Cheah Kongsi George Town 1900
190. Assumption Church George Town 1861
191. St. Xavier Institution George Town 1954
192. Hainanese Association George Town 1900
193. Carpenter Association George Town 1850
194. Goldsmith Association George Town 1903
195. Chan Kim Boon House George Town 1900
196. King Wan Association George Town 1900
197. Hainan Temple George Town 1895
198. Benggali Mosque George Town 1803
199. Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion George Town 1890
200. Leong Fee Mansion George Town 1907
201. Ku Din Ku Meh Mansion George Town 1900
202. St. Francis Xavier Church George Town 1867
203. Baba & Nyonya Heritage Bandar Hilir 1896
204. Cheng Hoon Teng Temple Bandar Hilir 1646
205. Kampung Kling Mosque Bandar Hilir 1748
206. Sri Poyyatha Vinayagar Temple Bandar Hilir 1781
207. Christ Church Bandar Hilir 1753
208. St. Paul Church Bandar Hilir 1553
209. Malay Independence Memorial Bandar Hilir 1911
Total209

5. THE PILOT SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Basically there are ten (10) sets of questioned has been stated in the questionnaire form and the questions are as follow:
Question 1: Location of the survey?
Question 2: Year the building was built?
Question 3: Building category?
Question 4: Current uses of the building?
Question 5: Current conditions of the building?
Question 6: Does the building has been conserved properly?
Question 7: Are there any sign of defects occur at the building?
Question 8: If yes, at which element?
Question 9: Does the building needs any conservation approach?
Question 10: Does the current conservation approach suitable?

6. THE ANALYSIS RESULTS OF THE PILOT SURVEY
Based on the data that has been collected throughout the pilot survey, all the data has been analyses using SPSS and simply summarized in forms of pie charts as shown at the next page:
Figure 1. Data Analysis for Question 1: Location of the survey? (Top Left)
Figure 2. Data Analysis for Question 2: Year the building was built? (Top Right)
Figure 3. Data Analysis for Question 3: Building category? (Top Left)
Figure 4. Data Analysis for Question 4: Current uses of the building? (Top Right)
Figure 5. Data Analysis for Question 5: Current conditions of the building? (Top Left)
Figure 6. Data Analysis for Question 6: Does the building have been conserved properly? (Top Right)
Figure 7. Data Analysis for Question 7: Are there any sign of defects occur at the building? (Top Left)
Figure 8. Data Analysis for Question 8: If yes, at which element? (Top Right)
Figure 9. Data Analysis for Question 9: Does the building needs any conservation approach? (Top Left)
Figure 10. Data Analysis for Question 10: Does the current conservation approach suitable? (Top Right)

7. RESEARCH FINDINGS
Based on the total number of 209 historical buildings that has been surveyed in the pilot survey at four heritage towns and cities i.e Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, George Town and Bandar Hilir, in order to identify the current conditions of the historical buildings and the level of buildng defects that occur at these historical buildings, it can be conculeded that:
1. 49% of the historical buildings surveyed was located at Kuala Lumpur.
2. The average age of the historical buildings in Malaysia was built in 1903.
3. 45% of the historical buildings surveyed was categorised as shop houses.
4. 90% of the historical buildings surveyed was still occupied while the other 6% was abandon and 4% has been demolished.
5. 39% of the historical buildings surveyed was in poor conditions.
6. 74% of the historical buildings surveyed has not being conserved properly.
7. 83% of the historical buildings surveyed has the sign of building defects.
8. 14% of the building defects occur at externall walls followed by 13% at internall walls and etc.
9. 87% of the historical buildings surveyed needs to be conserved.
10. 78% of the historical buildings surveyed showed that the buildings was not being conserved properly according to the basic principles and conservation guidelines.

8. CONCLUSION
Like many other countries in which building conservation seem a fairly new practice, Malaysia faces several problems in dealing with the issues of historic buildings. First, the present legislation on historic buildings is not sufficient and suitable to protect such buildings from being renovated, refurbished or even demolished and destroyed. Secondly, there is lack of technical knowledge in repairing and maintaining historic buildings. This is a major problem because almost all conservation jobs involve both repair and maintenance stages requiring an understanding of and analysis of building defect diagnoses. It would be hard to imagine our towns and cities without historic buildings; so much they are a part of the everyday scene that we tend to take them for granted and overlooks their importance. Each one is an example of a combination of design and construction skills that provide us with a very visible history of buildings through the past 500 years. The aim of this research is basically to identify common problems related to defects likely to occur at historic buildings. It is hoped that by doing this pilot survey and throughout the findings of this research, we could now have a clear scenario about the current condition of Malaysia historical buildings and the percentage of building defects that occur at these historic buildings and therefore a series of preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent it from happening in the future. Based from the research findings, we can conclude that most of the defects that occur at historic buildings in Malaysia were at external walls followed by internal walls and etc. Therefore, building owners should take special care and considerations at these building elements in order to prevent defects from occur in the future.

Understanding the common building defects is simply a logical way of proceeding from the evidence to the cause of a defect, after which remedies can be prescribed. The more that can be found about why defects have occurred, the more can be fed back through the repair works by the professionals responsible for the conservation works. Good repair practice is central to good conservation in Malaysia. Repair would be the only action required to enable historic buildings to survive. The present reality, however is that other sorts of intervention may be necessary to accommodate change. Alteration of one sort or another, in addition to straightforward repair, must sometimes be inflicted on buildings if they are to continue to be useful and wanted. Conservation, therefore, may entail more than repair. Destruction is invariably wasteful and may be positively damaging, while the creation and conservation of good buildings is always worthwhile where repair and maintenance may seem a modest unglamorous activity that can be continuity of past, present and future, working closely with historic buildings, scan be sheer pleasure, and making them good in the Malaysian way, indeed be glorious.

REFERENCES
1. Ahmad, A.G. (1997). British Colonial Architecture in Malaysia 1800-1930. Kuala Lumpur: Jabatan Muzium Malaysia.
2. Burden, E. (2004). Illustrated Dictionary of Architectural Preservation: Restoration, Renovation, Rehabilitation and Reuse. New York: McGraw Hill.
3. BWM (Badan Warisan Malaysia) (2006). [Online]. [Capaian 6hb. September 2007]. Diperolehi dari Laman Sesawang: http://www.badanwarisan.org.my/
4. Fee, C.V. (2003). A future for the past: conservation and reuse. In: C.V. Fee, (ed). The Encyclopedia of Malaysia Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. Pp.126-127.
5. Fielden, B.M. (2000). Conservation of Historic Buildings. Oxford: Architectural Press.
6. Idid, S.Z.A. (1995). Pemeliharaan Warisan Rupa Bandar: Panduan mengenali Warisan Rupa Bandar berasaskan Inventori Bangunan Warisan Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Badan Warisan Malaysia.
7. Insall, D.W. (1972). The Care of Old Buildings Today: A Practical Guide. London: The Architectural Press.
8. Kementerian Pelancongan (1998). Risalah Jejak Warisan Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Pelancongan dengan kerjasama Badan Warisan Malaysia.
9. Kerajaan Negeri Melaka (1996). Risalah Jejak Warisan Melaka. Melaka: Kerajaan Negeri Melaka dengan kerjasama Yayasan American Express.
10. Nasution, K.S. dan Lubis, A.R. (1999). Risalah panduan terhadap bangunan dan tapak warisan bagi ibu negeri Perak, Ipoh: bandar yang dibina oleh timah. Perak: Kerajaan Negeri Perak.
11. PERZIM (Perbadanan Muzium Melaka) (1994). Senarai bangunan-bangunan warisan di Melaka. Melaka: Perbadanan Muzium Melaka.
12. PHT (Penang Heritage Trust) (2006). Risalah Jejak Warisan Pulau Pinang. Pulau Pinang: Persatuan Warisan Pulau Pinang dan ARTS-ED.

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

what does actually pre-war building mean?
according to some source, theses buildings existing just after the Second World War [1941-1945].
and some said before 1948.but as i know there were many building like the shophouses is built at 1900s. so they are not consider as pre war buillding?

dewi_jayanti@yahoo.com said...

dear Kamar,
your research about building conservation is really interesting.
Regarding the conference, I was wondering if you also attended the first conference in 2007. I would like to ask for your help how could I get the copy of the first proceeding, or at least the Table of Content only (in electronic version)

many thanks in advance
Dewi

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