Thursday, April 02, 2009

UNESCO New Inscriptions of World Heritage List: Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of The Straits of Malacca, Malaysia

Malaysia
Date of Inscription: 2008
Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)
Property : 148 ha
Buffer zone: 284.07 ha

N5 25 17 E100 20 45Ref: 1223

Brief Description
Melaka and George Town, historic cities of the Straits of Malacca have developed over 500 years of trading and cultural exchanges between East and West in the Straits of Malacca. The influences of Asia and Europe have endowed the towns with a specific multicultural heritage that is both tangible and intangible. With its government buildings, churches, squares and fortifications, Melaka demonstrates the early stages of this history originating in the 15th-century Malay sultanate and the Portuguese and Dutch periods beginning in the early 16th century. Featuring residential and commercial buildings, George Town represents the British era from the end of the 18th century. The two towns constitute a unique architectural and cultural townscape without parallel anywhere in East and Southeast Asia.

Outstanding Universal Value
Melaka and George Town, Malaysia, are remarkable examples of historic colonial towns on the Straits of Malacca that demonstrate a succession of historical and cultural influences arising from their former function as trading ports linking East and West. These are the most complete surviving historic city centres on the Straits of Malacca with a multi-cultural living heritage originating from the trade routes from Great Britain and Europe through the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and the Malay Archipelago to China. Both towns bear testimony to a living multi-cultural heritage and tradition of Asia, where the many religions and cultures met and coexisted. They reflect the coming together of cultural elements from the Malay Archipelago, India and China with those of Europe, to create a unique architecture, culture and townscape.
Criterion (ii): Melaka and George Town represent exceptional examples of multi-cultural trading towns in East and Southeast Asia, forged from the mercantile and exchanges of Malay, Chinese, and Indian cultures and three successive European colonial powers for almost 500 years, each with its imprints on the architecture and urban form, technology and monumental art. Both towns show different stages of development and the successive changes over a long span of time and are thus complementary.
Criterion (iii): Melaka and George Town are living testimony to the multi-cultural heritage and tradition of Asia, and European colonial influences. This multi-cultural tangible and intangible heritage is expressed in the great variety of religious buildings of different faiths, ethnic quarters, the many languages, worship and religious festivals, dances, costumes, art and music, food, and daily life.
Criterion (iv): Melaka and George Town reflect a mixture of influences which have created a unique architec¬ture, culture and townscape without parallel anywhere in East and South Asia. In particular, they demonstrate an exceptional range of shophouses and townhouses. These buildings show many different types and stages of development of the building type, some originating in the Dutch or Portuguese periods.
The integrity of the nominated areas in both towns is related to the presence of all the elements necessary to express their Outstanding Universal Value. The properties have retained their authenticity; listed monuments and sites have been restored with appropriate treatments regarding design, materials, methodologies, techniques and workmanship, in accordance with conservation guidelines and principles.
The protective measures for the properties are adequate. Both towns exhibit a generally acceptable state of conservation, although efforts are required to ensure the conservation of shophouses. The management plans and structures are adequate, and can be enhanced through the continuing conservation programs of the State Party.

Requests the State Party to:
a) submit a comprehensive conservation plan dealing with all the buildings and its schedule for implementation in both cities;
b) develop measures for decreasing motor traffic;
c) improve the definition of key indicators for monitoring the architectural heritage components.

Themes: Nominations States

Parties: Malaysia

The Criteria for Selectoin
To be included on the World Heritage List, sites must be of outstanding universal value and meet at least one out of ten selection criteria. These criteria are explained in the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention which, besides the text of the Convention, is the main working tool on World Heritage. The criteria are regularly revised by the Committee to reflect the evolution of the World Heritage concept itself.


Until the end of 2004, World Heritage sites were selected on the basis of six cultural and four natural criteria. With the adoption of the revised Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, only one set of ten criteria exists.

Cultural criteria
Operational Guidelines 2002
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)
Operational Guidelines 2005
(i)(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

Selection criteria:
i. to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;
ii. to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design;
iii. to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared;
iv. to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history;
v. to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;
vi. to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria);
vii. to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance;
viii. to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;
ix. to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals;
x. to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.
The protection, management, authenticity and integrity of properties are also important considerations. Since 1992 significant interactions between people and the natural environment have been recognized as cultural landscapes.

The Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention
The World Heritage Committee, the main body in charge of the implementation of the Convention, has developed precise criteria for the inscription of properties on the World Heritage List and for the provision of international assistance under the World Heritage Fund.

These are all included in a document entitled 'Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention'. This document has been revised by the Committee to reflect new concepts, knowledge or experiences. Please find below the most recent version:
2008 Operational Guidelines (English)
2008 Operational Guidelines (French)
Historical Development & Past Versions
Committee/ Bureau Reference
January 2008
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [290 paras.]
English
French
2007 Comm.
February 2005
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [290 paras.]
Arabic
English
French
Hebrew
Japanese
Spanish
July 2002
Provisional Revision: Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [139 paras.]
2002 Comm.
March 1999
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [139 paras.] - Changes to the 1997 Guidelines
1998 Comm.
February 1997; reprinted 2/98
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [139 paras.]
1996 Comm.
February 1996
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [139 paras.]
1995 Bur.1995 Comm.
February 1995
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [140 paras.]
1994 Bur.1994 Comm.
February 1994
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [132 paras.]
1993 Comm.
27 March 1992
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [117 paras.]
1991 Bur.1991 Comm.
December 1988
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [112 paras.]
1983 Bur.1988 Comm.
January 1987
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [113 paras.]
1986 Comm.
January 1984
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [99 paras.]
1983 Bur.1983 Comm.
November 1983
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [99 paras.]
1982 Comm.
October 1980
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [66 paras.]
1980 Comm.
17 July 1980
Revised text of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention
21 April 1980
Revised text of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention
1978
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (adopted by the Committee at its first session and amended at its second session) [30 paras.]
20 October 1977
Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention [27 paras.]
30 June 1977
Operational Guidelines for the World Heritage Committee [28 paras.]

News
Jul 8, 2008 Twenty-seven new sites inscribed

Links
WHTour.org : visit this site in panographies (360 degree imaging)

Contacts
Mr Kenneth J. Luis Permanent Delegate. Permanent Delegation of Malaysia to UNESCO Maison de l'UNESCOBureau M7.401, rue Miollis75732 PARIS Cedex 15Tel: 01.45.68.34.74; 01.45.68.34.75; 01.45.68.34.76Fax: 01.42.73.33.52EMail: dl.malaysia@unesco.orgSource: UNESCO/ERC

Malaysian National Commission for UNESCO. President: Hon. Dato' Sri Hishammuddin Tun Hussein *ViceChairperson: Datuk Dr Zulkurnain Haji Awang Executive Secretary: Mr Mohd. Noor Rashid Mat Taharim Assistant Secretary: Mr Khalid Abu Bakar Ministry of Education International Relations Division Level 7, Block E8, Complex E Federal Government Administrative Centre62604 PUTRAJAYAMALAYSIATel: (60.3) 88 84 61 09; (60.3) 88 84 61 12Fax: (60.3) 88 89 54 73EMail: hishammuddin@moe.gov.my; zulkurnain@moe.gov.my;khalid.bakar@bha.moe.gov.my;mnr@bha.moe.gov.my Web Site: http://emoe.gov.my;%20%20%20(website%20of%20the%20ministry%20of%20education)/Source: UNESCO/ERC

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1 comment:

Anonymous said...

may i know which of the news paper u get the picture? because i need it to sone my project thanks.